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Table 1 Study-level and intervention characteristics by child age category

From: Identifying effective intervention strategies to reduce children’s screen time: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  All Studies 0–5 years 6 + years 6–12 years \(\le\)12 years 13 + years 0–18 years
k 204 46 31 80 24 15 7
Intervention Duration
  < 16 weeks 40% 46% 48% 39% 38% 33% 14%
 16–52 weeks 43% 37% 42% 45% 33% 60% 57%
  > 53 weeks 17% 17% 10% 116% 29% 7% 29%
Sample Size
  < 95 25% 30% 19% 25% 25% 13% 43%
 96–312 25% 30% 10% 25% 33% 40% 29%
 313–696 25% 30% 32% 19% 29% 27% 14%
  > 697 25% 10% 39% 31% 13% 20% 14%
Self-Identified Pilot 33% 43% 13% 29% 33% 40% 71%
Setting
 School/Daycare 59% 43% 74% 70% 29% 86% 14%
 Home & mHealth 16% 26% 10% 11% 12% 14% 58%
 Primary Care 10% 20% 6% 4% 17% 0% 14%
 Community/Research Center 15% 11% 10% 15% 42% 0% 14%
Study Design
 Two-Group Randomized 68% 70% 77% 64% 79% 74% 29%
 Two-Group, Non-Randomized 18% 17% 3% 24% 8% 13% 42%
 Single-Group, Non-Randomized 14% 13% 20% 12% 13% 13% 29%
Intervention Delivery
 Teachers 32% 17% 45% 41% 17% 27% 14%
 Research Staff 17% 13% 10% 24% 17% 13% 14%
 Healthcare Professionals 21% 37% 6% 15% 33% 7% 43%
 Other 30% 33% 39% 20% 33% 53% 29%
Intervention Recipient
 Child Only 54% 17% 84% 66% 29% 100% 29%
 Parent Only 17% 48% 0% 5% 38% 0% 0%
 Child and Parent 29% 35% 16% 29% 33% 0% 71%
Screen Target
 Targeted Other Obesogenic Behavior 37% 28% 52% 39% 25% 60% 13%
 TV only 25% 39% 10% 24% 29% 7% 29%
 TV & Other device 17% 11% 16% 23% 13% 13% 29%
 Screen Time, General 21% 22% 22% 15% 33% 20% 29%
Measurement Tool   96% 100% 95% 100% 100% 86%
 Self- or Parent-Report 97% 4% 0% 5% 0% 0% 14%
 Objective Tool 3%       
Social Comparison Cluster 84% 80% 90% 83% 83% 93% 71%
Knowledge and Consequences Cluster 91% 83% 94% 97% 92% 93% 57%
Behavioral Repetition/Practice Cluster 73% 59% 84% 79% 67% 73% 57%
Goals, Feedback, Planning Cluster 78% 80% 81% 74% 83% 87% 86%
Theoretical Frameworks
 Social Cognitive Theory 41% 37% 48% 43% 29% 53% 29%
 Social Ecological Model 15% 13% 16% 16% 21% 0% 14%
 Multiple Theories 21% 24% 35% 16% 21% 13% 14%