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Table 2 Estimate of intervention effectiveness by study-level characteristics

From: Identifying effective intervention strategies to reduce children’s screen time: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Presence of Characteristic k % of studies SMD (95CI)
Overall Pooled Random Effect 204 100% 0.116 (0.08 0.15)
Child Age
 0–5 years 46 23% 0.096 (-0.00 0.20)
 6 + years 31 15% 0.200 (0.16 0.28)
 6–12 years 80 39% 0.084 (0.04 0.13)
\(\le\) 12 years 24 12% 0.209 (0.05 0.37)
 13 + years 15 7% 0.103 (0.02 0.18)
 0–18 years 7 3% -0.047 (-0.59 0.49)
Intervention Duration
  < 12 weeks 67 33% 0.151 (0.07 0.23)
 13–52 weeks 103 50% 0.113 (0.07 0.16)
  > 53 weeks 34 17% 0.061 (-0.03 0.15)
Sample Size
  < 95 50 25% 0.298 (0.20 0.39)
 96–312 52 25% 0.112 (0.02 0.20)
 313–696 50 25% 0.063 (-0.01 0.14)
  > 697 50 25% 0.054 (0.02 0.09)
Setting
 School/Daycare 121 59% 0.098 (0.05 0.14)
 Home & mHealth 33 16% 0.152 (0.07 0.23)
 Primary Care 19 9% 0.015 (-0.18 0.21)
 Community/Research Center 31 15% 0.192 (0.11 0.27)
Study Design
 Two-Group Randomized 139 68% 0.129 (0.09 0.17)
 Two-Group, Non-Randomized 36 18% 0.064 (-0.05 0.18)
 Single-Group, Non-Randomized 29 14% 0.106 (0.03 0.18)
Intervention Delivery
 Teachers 65 32% 0.051 (-0.00 0.10)
 Research Staff 35 17% 0.300 (0.16 0.44)
 Healthcare Professionals 43 21% 0.051 (-0.05 0.15)
 Other 61 30% 0.149 (0.09 0.21)
Intervention Recipient
 Child Only 111 54% 0.076 (0.03 0.12)
 Parent Only 35 17% 0.222 (0.09 0.35)
 Child and Parent 58 28% 0.147 (0.07 0.23)
Screen Target
 Targeted Other Obesogenic Behavior 76 37% 0.120 (0.08 0.16)
 TV only 50 25% 0.093 (0.01 0.18)
 TV & Other device 35 17% 0.124 (0.04 0.21)
 Non-specific screen target 43 21% 0.089 (-0.02 0.20)
Measurement Tool
 Self- or Parent-Report 197 97% 0.113 (0.07 0.15)
 Objective Tool 7 3% 0.235 (-0.02 0.49)