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Table 3 Estimate of intervention effectiveness by the presence or absence of behavior change clusters or techniques

From: Identifying effective intervention strategies to reduce children’s screen time: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Presence of Characteristic Absence of Characteristic Test of Difference
k % of studies SMD (95CI) k SMD (95CI) SMD (95CI)
Overall Pooled Random Effect 204 100% 0.116 (0.08 0.15)      
Motivational Interviewing (Package) 22 11% 0.155 (0.00 0.31) 182 0.112 (0.07 0.15) 0.030 (-0.09 0.15)
Social Comparison Cluster 171 84% 0.119 (0.08 0.16) 33 0.098 (0.00 0.19) 0.021 (-0.08 0.12)
 Social Comparison 51 25% 0.150 (0.09 0.21) 153 0.105 (0.06 0.15) 0.051 (-0.03 0.14)
 Social Support 134 66% 0.112 (0.07 0.15) 70 0.123 (0.04 0.20) 0.001 (-0.08 0.08)
 Modeling 99 49% 0.102 (0.04 0.16) 105 0.124 (0.08 0.17) -0.030 (-0.11 0.05)
 Encouragement 106 52% 0.125 (0.07 0.18) 98 0.107 (0.05 0.16) 0.021 (-0.05 0.10)
 Role Model 76 37% 0.129 (0.09 0.17) 128 0.111 (0.05 0.17) 0.031 (-0.05 0.11)
Knowledge and Consequences Cluster 186 91% 0.116 (0.08 0.15) 18 0.138 (-0.06 0.34) 0.019 (-0.12 0.16)
 Information on Behavior-Health Link 168 82% 0.111 (0.07 0.15) 36 0.175 (0.03 0.32) -0.018 (-0.12 0.08)
 Information on Consequences 68 33% 0.162 (0.10 0.22) 136 0.093 (0.04 0.14) 0.073 (-0.01 0.15)
 Instruction 145 71% 0.120 (0.08 0.16) 59 0.105 (0.03 0.18) 0.019 (-0.06 0.10)
Behavioral Repetition/Practice Cluster 148 73% 0.117 (0.07 0.16) 56 0.112 (0.04 0.18) 0.005 (-0.08 0.09)
 Prompts Cues 18 9% 0.147 (0.01 0.28) 186 0.113 (0.07 0.15) 0.035 (-0.10 0.17)
 Prompts Practice 129 63% 0.109 (0.06 0.16) 75 0.127 (0.07 0.19) -0.021 (-0.10 0.06)
 Graded Tasks 28 14% 0.234 (0.15 0.32) 176 0.098 (0.06 0.14) 0.145 (0.03 0.26)
 Contingent Rewards 57 30% 0.133 (0.08 0.18) 147 0.107 (0.06 0.16) 0.044 (-0.04 0.13)
Goals, Feedback, Planning Cluster 160 88% 0.145 (0.11 0.18) 44 0.001 (-0.11 0.11) 0.154 (0.07 0.24)
 Goal Setting 97 48% 0.182 (0.13 0.23) 107 0.058 (0.01 0.11) 0.129 (0.06 0.20)
 Goal Review 38 19% 0.222 (0.14 0.30) 166 0.092 (0.05 0.13) 0.131 (0.04 0.23)
 Feedback 60 29% 0.137 (0.08 0.19) 144 0.107 (0.06 0.16) 0.040 (-0.04 0.12)
 Self-Monitoring 84 41% 0.183 (0.13 0.24) 120 0.068 (0.02 0.12) 0.118 (0.04 0.19)
 Behavioral Contract 13 6% 0.139 (0.03 0.24) 191 0.114 (0.07 0.15) 0.041 (-0.11 0.19)
 Intention Formation 81 40% 0.154 (0.11 0.19) 123 0.089 (0.03 0.15) 0.083 (0.01 0.16)
 Barrier Identification 80 39% 0.115 (0.08 0.15) 124 0.113 (0.05 0.17) 0.024 (-0.05 0.10)
 Follow-Up Prompts 85 42% 0.175 (0.12 0.23) 119 0.074 (0.03 0.12) 0.103 (0.03 0.18)
Theoretical Frameworks
 Social Cognitive Theory 83 41% 0.139 (0.10 0.18) 121 0.101 (0.04 0.16) 0.053 (-0.02 0.13)
 Social Ecological Model 30 15% 0.096 (0.03 0.16) 174 0.119 (0.08 0.16) -0.013 (-0.12 0.09)
 Multiple Theories 43 21% 0.131 (0.06 0.20) 161 0.113 (0.07 0.16) 0.022 (-0.07 0.11)