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Table 1 Baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of the study population by age and sex (N = 1686)

From: Mobility and muscle strength trajectories in old age: the beneficial effect of Mediterranean diet in combination with physical activity and social support

  Total population  < 78 years (n = 1314)  ≥ 78 years (n = 372)
Male (n = 573) Female (n = 741) Male (n = 141) Female (n = 231)
Education, n(%)
 Elementary 152 (9.0) 46 (8.0) 49 (6.6) 22 (15.6) 35 (15.2)
 High school 784 (46.5) 225 (39.3) 344 (46.4) 67 (47.2) 148 (64.1)
 University 750 (44.5) 302 (52.7) 348 (47.0) 52 (36.9) 48 (20.8)
Civil status, n(%)
 Unmarried 275 (16.3) 104 (18.2) 134 (18.1) 10 (7.1) 27 (11.7)
 Married 935 (55.5) 396 (69.1) 380 (51.4) 100 (70.9) 59 (25.5)
 Divorced 237 (14.1) 56 (9.8) 146 (19.8) 8 (5.7) 27 (11.7)
 Widow 237 (14.1) 17 (3.0) 79 (10.7) 23 (16.3) 118 (51.1)
Chronic diseases, median (IQR) 3.1 (1.7;2.9) 2 (1;4) 3 (2;4) 4 (3;6) 4 (3;6)
Dietary supplements, n(%)
 No 1262 (74.9) 507 (88.5) 517 (69.8) 109 (77.3) 129 (55.8)
 Yes 424 (25.2) 66 (11.5) 224 (30.2) 32 (22.7) 102 (44.2)
Social support, n(%)
 Low 562 (33.3) 197 (34.4) 208 (28.1) 74 (52.5) 83 (35.9)
 Moderate 562 (33.3) 191 (33.3) 257 (34.7) 35 (24.8) 79 (34.2)
 High 562 (33.3) 185 (32.3) 276 (37.3) 32 (22.7) 69 (29.9)
Physical activity, n(%)
 Inadequate 263 (15.6) 109 (19.0) 92 (12.4) 22 (15.6) 40 (17.3)
 Health enhancing 908 (53.9) 270 (47.1) 410 (55.3) 82 (58.2) 146 (63.2)
 Fitness enhancing 515 (30.6) 194 (33.9) 239 (32.3) 37 (26.2) 45 (19.5)
Adherence to Mediterranean diet, n(%)
 Low 802 (47.6) 260 (45.4) 338 (45.6) 66 (46.8) 138 (59.7)
 Moderate 365 (21.7) 129 (22.5) 160 (21.6) 31 (22.0) 45 (19.5)
 High 519 (30.8) 184 (32.1) 243 (32.8) 44 (31.2) 48 (20.8)
Total energy intake (Kcal/day),
median (IQR)
1601.6 (1274.6;1992.7) 1824.9 (1469.9;2190.7) 1443.8 (1172.0;1741.5) 2040.5 (1644.7;2379.9) 1442.1 (1165.8;1818.8)
  1. Dietary supplements include vitamin A, B1, B6, B12, C, other plain vitamins, calcium, potassium and other minerals
  2. Low, moderate and high levels of social support and adherence to Mediterranean diet categorized according to the tertiles of the distribution
  3. Levels of physical activity categorized as follows: inadequate (≤ 2–3 times per month of light and/or moderate/intense exercise), health-enhancing (light exercise several times per week or every day), and fitness-enhancing (moderate/intense exercise several times per week or every day)
  4. IQR Interquartile range