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Table 2 Baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of the study population by levels of adherence to Mediterranean diet (N = 1686)

From: Mobility and muscle strength trajectories in old age: the beneficial effect of Mediterranean diet in combination with physical activity and social support

  Low adherence (n = 802) Moderate adherence (n = 365) High adherence (n = 519) p-value*
Age n(%)
  < 78 years 598 (74.6) 289 (79.2) 427 (82.3)  < 0.001
  ≥ 78 years 204 (25.4) 76 (20.8) 92 (17.7)
Sex n(%)
 Male 326 (40.7) 160 (43.8) 228 (43.9) 0.011
 Female 476 (59.4) 205 (56.2) 291 (56.1)
Education, n(%)
 Elementary 92 (11.5) 26 (7.1) 34 (6.6)  < 0.001
 High school 396 (49.4) 177 (48.5) 211 (40.7)
 University 314 (39.2) 162 (44.4) 274 (52.8)
Civil status, n(%)
 Unmarried 154 (19.2) 45 (12.3) 76 (14.7)  < 0.001
 Married 405 (50.5) 214 (58.6) 316 (61.1)
 Divorced 115 (14.3) 59 (16.2) 63 (12.2)
 Widow 128 (16.0) 47 (12.9) 62 (12.0)
Chronic diseases, median (IQR) 3 (2;4) 3 (2;4) 3 (2;4)  < 0.001
Dietary supplements, n(%)
 No 596 (74.3) 279 (76.4) 387 (74.6) 0.205
 Yes 206 (25.7) 86 (23.6) 132 (25.4)
Social support, n(%)
 Low 296 (36.9) 115 (31.5) 151 (29.1)  < 0.001
 Moderate 281 (35.0) 117 (32.1) 164 (31.6)
 High 225 (28.1) 133 (36.4) 204 (39.3)
Physical activity, n(%)
 Inadequate 150 (18.7) 53 (14.5) 60 (11.6)  < 0.001
 Health enhancing 442 (55.1) 199 (54.5) 267 (51.5)
 Fitness enhancing 210 (26.2) 113 (30.9) 192 (37.0)
Total energy intake (Kcal/day),
median (IQR)
1571.5 (1216.3;2013.8) 1610.9 (1316.6;1943.9) 1628.4 (1327.0;2008.1)  < 0.001
  1. *Chi2 test or Kruskall-Wallis test accordingly
  2. Low, moderate and high levels of social support and adherence to Mediterranean diet categorized according to the tertiles of the distribution
  3. Levels of physical activity categorized as follows: inadequate (≤ 2–3 times per month of light and/or moderate/intense exercise), health-enhancing (light exercise several times per week or every day), and fitness-enhancing (moderate/intense exercise several times per week or every day)
  4. IQR Interquartile range