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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by intervention group

From: Effects of a three-armed randomised controlled trial using self-monitoring of daily steps with and without counselling in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes—the Sophia Step Study

  Total (n = 188) Multi-component intervention (n = 64) Single-component intervention (n = 59) Control group (n = 65)
Demographics
 Age (years), mean (SD) 64.1 (7.7) 64.2 (6.9) 65.1 (7.3) 63.1 (8.7)
 Female, n (%) 76 (40.4) 28 (43.8) 24 (40.7) 24 (36.9)
 Prediabetes, n (%) 40 (21.2) 13 (20.3) 10 (16.9) 17 (26.2)
 Diabetes duration in years, mean (SD)a 8.2 (5.9) 9.4 (7.1) 7.9 (5.2) 7.3 (4.8)
 Daily smoker, n (%)b 12 (7.1) 3 (5.1) 4 (7.7) 5 (8.6)
 University education, n (%)b,c 87 (50.6) 28 (45.9) 25 (47.2) 34 (58.6)
 Living with a partner, n (%)b 124 (72.1) 46 (75.4) 37 (71.2) 41 (69.5)
 Start of the intervention
  During autumn, n (%) 98 (52.1) 33 (51.6) 33 (55.9) 32 (49.2)
  During winter, n (%) 70 (37.2) 22 (34.4) 24 (40.7) 24 (36.9)
  During spring, n (%) 19 (10.1) 9 (14.1) 1 (1.7) 9 (13.8)
  During summer, n (%) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 1 (1.7) 0 (0)
Cardiometabolic risk factors
 HbA1c (mmol/mol), mean (SD) 49.9 (11.4) 49.4 (11.2) 50.5 (11.2) 49.9 (12.0)
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L), mean (SD) 7.9 (1.9) 7.7 (1.8) 8.0 (2.2) 7.8 (1.8)
 C-peptide (nmol/L), mean (SD) 1.07 (0.44) 1.12 (0.46) 1.00 (0.49) 1.09 (0.36)
 Insulin (mU/l), mean (SD) 14.8 (9.6) 15.7 (9.6) 13.6 (10.7) 14.9 (8.7)
 ApoB/ApoA1, mean (SD) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.6 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2)
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SD) 1.4 (0.4) 1.4 (0.3) 1.3 (0.4) 1.4 (0.5)
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SD) 2.9 (1.0) 2.9 (0.9) 2.8 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0)
 Total cholesterol, (mmol/L) mean (SD) 5.01 (1.08) 5.03 (0.98) 4.90 (1.11) 5.09 (1.14)
 Triglycerides (mmol/L), mean (SD) 1.74 (1.01) 1.80 (0.87) 1.78 (1.16) 1.65 (1.00)
 Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 30.0 (4.4) 30.3 (4.1) 29.4 (4.4) 30.2 (4.8)
 Body fat (%), mean (SD) 34.7 (8.1) 36.0 (8.2) 33.7 (7.8) 34.1 (8.1)
 Waist circumference, men (cm), mean (SD) 107.2 (10.6) 107.0 (10.8) 107.4 (11.5) 107.1 (9.7)
 Waist circumference, women (cm), mean (SD) 99.3 (12.3) 101.9 (11.9) 95.3 (11.8) 100.1 (12.8)
 Sagittal abdominal diameter (cm), mean (SD) 24.7 (3.6) 24.8 (3.4) 24.6 (4.0) 24.7 (3.5)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD) 134.3 (15.9) 131.2 (14.4) 138.2 (16.1) 133.9 (16.4)
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD) 83.8 (9.2) 83.1 (7.9) 84.8 (9.4) 83.5 (10.1)
Physical activity and sedentary behaviours
 MVPA (min/day), mean (SD)e 29.3 (23.7) 28.9 (20.5) 29.6 (25.0) 29.6 (25.9)
 LPA (min/day), mean (SD)e 220.0 (65.4) 213.3 (59.7) 222.5 (72.3) 225.2 (64.9)
 SB (min/day), mean (SD)e 588.5 (84.9) 596.6 (89.6) 583.5 (91.1) 584.3 (73.3)
 Steps/day, mean (SD)d 6570 (3090) 6613 (3305) 6559 (3125) 6540 (2887)
 Accelerometer wear time (min/day), mean (SD)e 837.9 (74.1) 838.8 (92.3) 835.7 (59.6) 839.1 (65.0)
 Met PA recommendation of > 150 min MVPA/week, n (%)e 94 (53.7) 39 (61.9) 29 (52.7) 26 (45.6)
  1. The table presents the mean (standard deviation) or proportion (%). The number of participants varies with ± 1–2 for some variables due to missing data
  2. MVPA Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, LPA Time in light-intensity physical activity, SB Time in sedentary behaviours, min Minutes
  3. aOnly participants diagnosed with diabetes
  4. bSome participants have missing data
  5. cHaving university education
  6. dBaseline daily steps were available for 165 participants
  7. eBaseline accelerometry data were available for 177 participants