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Table 3 Predictive values of HRV for long-term mortality

From: Association between cardiac autonomic function and physical activity in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death: a cohort study

  Univariable Cox regression model Multivariable Cox regression model 1 Multivariable Cox regression model 2
  HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Primary endpoint: cardiac death
 Per 1 ms/increasea 0.978 (0.968–0.987) P < 0.001 0.978 (0.967–0.989) P < 0.001 0.979 (0.968–0.991) P < 0.001
 ≥75.9 ms group vs < 75.9 ms group 0.169 (0.080–0.355) P < 0.001 0.197 (0.090–0.428) P < 0.001 0.224 (0.103–0.489) P < 0.001
Secondary endpoint: all-cause mortality
 Per 1 ms/increasea 0.983 (0.976–0.991) P < 0.001 0.984 (0.976–0.993) P < 0.001 0.986 (0.978–0.995) P = 0.003
 ≥75.9 ms group vs < 75.9 ms group 0.291 (0.176–0.482) P < 0.001 0.351 (0.205–0.600) P < 0.001 0.394 (0.231–0.674) P = 0.001
  1. Multivariable Cox regression model 1 was adjusted for age at implantation, sex, BMI, LVEF, LVEDD, ICD or CRT-D implantation, NYHA Class, hypertension, DM, stroke, DCM, ICM, MI, PCI, pre-implant syncope, prior AF, use of ACEIs/ARBs, use of diuretics, and use of aldosterone antagonists. Multivariate Cox regression model 2 was adjusted for the above-mentioned confounders and additional PA
  2. ACEIs/ARBs angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, AF atrial fibrillation, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CRT-D cardiac resynchronisation therapy defibrillator, DM diabetic mellitus, HRV heart rate variability, HR hazard ratio, ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator, ICM ischaemic cardiomyopathy, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, MI myocardial infarction, NYHA New York Heart Association, PA physical activity, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention
  3. a each additional 1 ms increase in HRV