Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of the implementation intervention delivered over 24 months (8 school terms), and the fidelity (provided), reach (uptake) and cost ($AUD) of each strategy

From: Scale-up of the Physical Activity 4 Everyone (PA4E1) intervention in secondary schools: 24-month implementation and cost outcomes from a cluster randomised controlled trial

Implementation support strategies (n = 7) and sub-strategies (n = 23) (implemented over 8 school terms) of the implementation intervention Fidelity (provided)
(n/N schools)
Reach (uptake)
(n/N schools)
Mean cost per school over 24 months
0–12 months 12–24 months 0–24 months 0–12 months 12–24 months 0–24 months ($AUD)
1. Executive and leadership support        108.50
1.1: PA4E1 Partnership agreement signed by school executive. N/A N/A N/A 24/24 24/24 24/24  
1.2: New or existing school committee formed to oversee program. N/A N/A N/A 15/24 18/24 11/24  
1.3: The School committee is inclusive of in-School Champion and school executive to oversee the program. N/A N/A N/A 10/24 11/24 7/24  
1.4: Committee met at least once per term. N/A N/A N/A 10/24 13/24 8/24  
2. Embedded school staff: in-School Champion        14,000.00
2.1: An existing school PE teacher is allocated the role of in-School Champion by schools to support implementation. N/A N/A N/A 24/24 23/24 23/24  
2.2: The position was funded by the NSW Department of Health, half day per week (equivalent to $350AUD a fortnight). 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
3. External implementation supportb        723.50
3.1: Health Promotion Support Officer (ideally a trained PE teacher) appointed to support schools with the program. 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
3.2: Health Promotion Support Officer was co-located within the relevant local health district. 17/24 24/24 17/24 17/24 24/24 17/24  
3.3bc: Weekly contact was made with in-School Champion via phone, email and/or face-to-face site visits for the first 12 months. In the second 12 months, phone, email and/or face-to-face contact was made according to the following high dose/low dose protocol matched to school practice uptake in the preceding term (e.g. term 5 informs term 6)
   Schools implementing four or less practices received 2 face-to-face contact points, as well as 6 emails or phone calls in the term.
   Schools implementing five or more practices received 1 face-to-face contact point and seven emails or phone calls in the term.
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A  
3.4b: Support Officer and in-School Champion have a face-to-face contact at least once a term for the first 12 months. In the second 12 months, the Support Officer and in-School Champion have face-to-face site visits according to the following high dose/low dose protocol matched to school practice uptake in the preceding term (e.g. term 5 informs term 6)
   Schools implementing four or less practices received 2 face-to-face contact points per term
   Schools implementing five or more practices 1 face-to-face contact point per term
24/24 24/24 24/24 18/24 8/24 5/24  
4. Teacher professional learning        588.29
4.1: In-School Champion training −1-day of face to face training was hosted per year by PA4E1 implementation. Accommodation, meals and transport costs were covered by the NSW Department of Health. 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 22/24 22/24  
4.2: Quality PE training for all PE teachers – 6 × 10-min online training videos followed by knowledge check short quizzes focused on the SAAFE principles were delivered via a password protected program website. 24/24 21/24 21/24 12/24 11/24 7/24  
4.3a: Enhanced school sport training – in-School Champions and other teachers involved in delivering the program could attend an existing 1 day face-to-face Resistance Training for Teens workshop offered by the NSW Department of Education (School Sport Unit), or equivalent training run by PA4E1 implementation team (not accredited). Course costs to be paid by project for in-School Champion, but not for other teachers. 24/24 24/24 24/24 23/24 23/24 23/24  
4.4a: School physical activity policy training – in-School Champion offered existing online training run by the NSW Department of Education School Sport Unit (Government schools only, n = 19) [33]. 19/19 19/19 19/19 4/19 4/19 4/19  
5. Resources        775.21
5.1a: Printed posters outlining Quality PE principles (SAAFE Principles [2]) to be displayed in PE department delivered to in-School Champions. 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
5.2a: A $100AUD physical activity equipment voucher was provided to support the delivery of recess and lunchtime physical activity. 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
5.3a: Equipment provided to support the delivery of recess and lunchtime physical activity enhanced schools sport program (5 Gymsticks/school). 24/24 24/24 24/24 22/24 22/24 22/24  
5.4: Electronic resources housed on the program website (PA4E1 online) included:
- overview of program presentation (Microsoft PowerPoint presentation)
- project milestones to be achieved each term (over 4 terms)
- online quality PE training (SAAFE Principle videos (6 videos – one overview and one per Principle) and worksheet, peer observation materials)
- student personal physical activity plan templates
- recess and lunch resources
- policy templates
- examples of community physical activity providers
- tips and frequently asked questions
24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
6. Provision of prompts and reminders        0.00
6.1: Weekly contact was made with in-School Champion via phone, email and/or face-to-face site visits for the first 12 months. In the second 12 months, contact was made by the Support Officer to in-School Champions via phone, email and/or face-to-face site visits according to the following high dose/low dose protocol matched to school practice uptake in the preceding term (e.g. term 5 informs term 6)
   Schools implementing four or less practices received 2 face-to-face contact points, as well as 6 emails or phone calls in the term.
   Schools implementing five or more practices 1 face-to-face contact point and seven emails or phone calls in the term.
16/24 22/24 16/24 16/24 22/24 16/24  
6.2: Automated messages were sent each term via the program website to in-School Champions to prompt completion of teacher professional learning and online termly performance monitoring and feedback surveys. 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
7. Implementation performance monitoring and feedback        16.25
7.1: In-School Champion completes all termly surveys via the program website (PA4E1 Online). 24/24 21/24 21/24 24/24 21/24 21/24  
7.2: A feedback report is automatically generated and sent to in-School Champions via email 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24 24/24  
7.3: A feedback report is automatically generated and sent to school Principals via email. 24/24 24/24 24/24 6/24 7/24 6/24  
Additional Centralized Resources        1075.00
 Cost to develop and maintain the PA4E1 online portal used by all schools in the program group to automate the delivery of the implementation strategies and house resources electronically.        
Total 95.6% 98.1% 94.4% 81.5% 82.5% 75.5% $17,296.33
  1. Total fidelity and reach scores are percentage across all schools. Only sub-strategies with available data were included. Sub-totals for fidelity and reach percentages were calculated within each implementation strategy first, then sub-totals were averaged from all seven strategies to produce a final fidelity and reach percentage
  2. N/A Excluded as there was no available data
  3. Supplementary File 6 outlines the data sources and criteria used to determine fidelity and reach for each implementation support strategy (sub-strategies 1.1–7.3) at both 0–12 months and 12–24 months
  4. Supplementary File 7 outlines a more detailed results table for the implementation support strategy cost per year and mean cost per school
  5. aOnly offered in the first 12 months, scores from 0 to 12 months carried over to 12–24 months
  6. b Support offered by the external Support Officer was standardized across all school between baseline and 12-months. Between 12 and 24 months, support offered by the external support officer was tailored depending on the progress of the school towards desired milestones, as described in each sub-strategy
  7. cData was collected, but sub-strategy 3.3 is a combination of sub-strategy 3.4 and 6.1, the data was not counted twice and is hence listed as not applicable