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Table 2 All 13 categories of barriers generated from the CI process

From: Enhancing the implementation and sustainability of fundamental movement skill interventions in the UK and Ireland: lessons from collective intelligence engagement with stakeholders

Category Clarification Sample statements from CI process
A. Time Time constraints to integrate the proposed programme A demand for time in the curriculum, impacting time allotted for interventions
B. Government and Institutional Factors relating to policy that may support institutionalisation of the programme. Refusal of government to offer greater time for PE/sports in schools
C. Curricular Conflicts The contextual appropriateness and congruence with the existing curriculum and schools’ priorities Conflict between school targets and research targets
D. Design and Implementation The compatibility and adaptability of the proposed programme Lack of considerations of long-term sustainability and implementation of the programme
E. Research Challenges Challenges relating to conducting intervention research Failure to recruit schools/children to interventions
F. Knowledge and Appreciation Perceived need and benefits of the proposed programme and possession of the relevant skills and knowledge Lack of teacher knowledge of FMS and PA in children
G. Conflicts and Purposes within PE The contextual appropriateness and congruence with the current PE curriculum and practice Conflicting interpretations among PE teachers of the aims and the purpose of FMS interventions
H. Resources and Funding Factors relating to funding and resources at the government level and individual organisational level. Lack of funding to support implementation phase
I. Staffing Specific considerations on staffing, internal advocates and managerial support necessary for successful implementation Shortage of staff to support interventions, therefore prevents the ‘adoption’ of an intervention going forward
J. Efficacy and Attitude Motivation and self-efficacy to implement the proposed programme Unwillingness by PE teachers to implement strategies that they are not familiar with
K. Training Approaches to insure providers proficiencies in the skills and knowledge required to implement the programme Lack of Continuing Professional Development for PE teachers (i.e. minimal contact time with PE teachers) and therefore inadequate training
L. Testing Challenges Challenges relating to conducting outcome assessments Failure of test subjects to engage with demonstration from researchers
M. Intervention Evaluation Practice and knowledge on programme evaluations. Inadequate reporting on interventions, such as intervention process, actual ‘on-task’ time for FMS practice, and actual delivered dose of the intervention