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Table 4 Overview of LIKE evaluation questions

From: The ENCOMPASS framework: a practical guide for the evaluation of public health programmes in complex adaptive systems

Evaluation stage Related evaluation questions in the LIKE programme Epistemology
   Post-positivist Interpretive
Theorising stage 1.1 What factors and processes in the pre-existing system in Amsterdam East shape unhealthy behaviours? X X
1.2 From the perspective of adolescents/families/societal stakeholders, what factors and processes in the pre-existing system in Amsterdam East shape unhealthy behaviours?   X
1.3 For those parts of the system that will be addressed by the action programme: What does the pre-existing system look like in terms of relevant stakeholders, power relations, and ongoing policies and activities? X X
Process evaluation stage 2.1 How has the understanding of the pre-existing system influenced the LIKE action programme?   X
2.2 How is the action programme evolving, what action elements does it consist of, and what levels of the intervention level framework are being addressed by these actions? X  
2.3 What type of actions have resulted from the different approaches (group model building, participatory action research, mechanisms targeted by LIKE members) that we use? X  
2.4 How successful is the approach we follow in our LIKE programme in creating a sustainable programme, and how can this be optimised? X X
2.5 How are actions monitored and adapted? And to what extent has this influenced the design and implementation of actions? X X
Outcome and impact evaluation stage 3.1 What type of (emergent, adapting, reinforcing) changes occurred in the living context, what were potential unintended consequences, and how can these be linked to the LIKE programme? X  
3.2 How do the target group and stakeholders perceive changes in the system and how do they perceive activities within the LIKE programme as contributing to these changes?   X
3.3 To what extent was systems thinking incorporated in the LIKE action programme and in the work of relevant stakeholders?   X
3.4 To what extent did the network of relevant stakeholders change because of the influence of LIKE? X  
3.5 What is the effect of the individual actions on the targeted action functions (that is, the specified theories of change)? X X