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Table 5 Steps for the identification of leverage points in the LIKE programme

From: The ENCOMPASS framework: a practical guide for the evaluation of public health programmes in complex adaptive systems

What is the target problem? Step 1. What is the direct cause of this problem (that is, the tip of the iceberg)? Step 2. What are the underlying mechanisms causing this problem? Step 3. What are potential leverage points (at the ILF levels)?
In the transition period from primary to secondary school, adolescents make less use of outdoor facilities (such as parks and sport fields). They are therefore less physically active in their spare time. Most outdoor facilities are designed for young children. Adolescents therefore do not find such environments attractive. The absence of peers at the facilities further inhibits their use of them. Adolescents do not participate in decision making regarding the design of outdoor facilities. The facilities are therefore unattractive for them to use. 1. Paradigm: Active outdoor play is considered a routine behaviour among adolescents.
2. System goals: The system serves the needs of adolescents.
3. System structure: Urban design planners and youth representatives collaborate on a regular basis.
4. Feedback and delays:
Outdoor facilities are attractive, and adolescents therefore make more use of them. Because more adolescents use these facilities, that becomes more attractive for other adolescents.
5. Structural elements: Secondary schools encourage adolescents to use outdoor facilities.