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Table 1 Physical behavior assessed by accelerometer-based methods evaluating validity, subdivided by level of evidencea, and criteria for acceptable outcome values

From: Systematic review of accelerometer-based methods for 24-h physical behavior assessment in young children (0–5 years old)

Physical behavior Level of Evidence
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Physical activity Indirect calorimetry to score energy expenditure, e.g., DLW, AEE Direct observation to score activity type Pedometer (daily) step counts
Direct video observation to score activity type Accelerometer-based magnitude of acceleration (different brand/type)  
Sedentary behavior (primarily defined as an activity type, and secondarily as an intensity) Direct video observation to score activity type Direct observation to score activity type Accelerometer-based magnitude of acceleration (different brand/type)
Indirect calorimetry to score energy expenditure Accelerometer-based orientation classification (thigh data), e.g., activPAL  
Sleep Polysomnography Videosomnography or direct video observation to classify sleep–wake states Direct observation to classify sleep–wake states
  Indirect calorimetry, e.g., SMR Accelerometer-based magnitude of acceleration (different brand/type)
Outcome value Acceptable results
  Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
rp, rsp, r, R2  ≥ .70  ≥ .60  ≥ .60
AUC-ROC, accuracy, Se, Sp  ≥ .80  ≥ .80  ≥ .80
ICC, CCC κ, κw, κqw  ≥ .70  ≥ .70  ≥ .70
  1. Abbreviations: AEE activity energy expenditure, AUC-ROC area under the receiver operating curve, CCC concordance correlation coefficient, DLW doubly labelled water, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, κ Kappa, κw weighted Kappa, κqw quadratic weighted Kappa, rp Pearson correlation coefficient, rsp Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient, r unknown correlation coefficient, R2 R-squared value, Se sensitivity, SMR sleeping metabolic rate, Sp specificity
  2. a Level of evidence: level 1 indicating strong evidence, level 2 indicating moderate evidence, and level 3 indicating weak evidence