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Table 3 Associations of infant slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness with income-poverty ratio, maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode

From: Prospective relations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits

  Infant Slowness in Eating Infant Satiety Responsiveness
Maternal Variables B(SE) p ΔR2 B(SE) p ΔR2
Step 1    .02    .01
 Income-poverty Ratio 0.13(0.07) .054   -0.08(0.07) .271  
Step 2    .00    .04
 Food Preoccupation and Responsiveness -0.01(0.07) .879   0.20(0.07) .005  
 Reinforcing Value of Food -0.06(0.07) .402   -0.12(0.07) .101  
Step 3    .02    .02
 %Energy Intake from UPF -0.09(0.07) .243   -0.16(0.07) .031  
 Early Pregnancy BMI 0.03(0.08) .718   -0.06(0.08) .541  
 Excessive GWGa -0.23(0.15) .118   0.02(0.14) .892  
Step 4    .00    .01
 Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration -0.07(0.07) .346   -0.10(0.07) .141  
  1. Linear regressions were conducted with independent variables entered as follows: Step 1 included household income-poverty ratio, Step 2 added maternal food preoccupation and responsiveness and maternal reinforcing value of food, Step 3 added maternal UPF intake (% of energy intake) during pregnancy, early pregnancy BMI, and GWG, and Step 4 added exclusive breastfeeding duration. aDummy coded (0 = Inadequate or adequate, 1 = Excessive). UPF Ultra-Processed Food, BMI Body Mass Index, GWG Gestational Weight Gain