Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of PACE implementation strategies, including a comparison between PACE and Adapted PACE

From: Optimising a multi-strategy implementation intervention to improve the delivery of a school physical activity policy at scale: findings from a randomised noninferiority trial

Implementation strategy and barrier(s) addressed Link to the BCW
(TDF domain)a
Implementation strategy description PACE Adapt-ation Adapted PACE
Mode of delivery Delivery provider Mode of delivery Delivery provider
1. Centralise technical assistance and provide ongoing consultation with ≥1 expert in the strategies used to support implementing the innovation
Barriers: Teachers knowledge, ability or competence;
Lack of time; Perceived priority of the policy in the schools
Psychological capability (beliefs about capabilities; knowledge)
Opportunity: social (environmental context and resources)
Motivation: reflective (goals)
Project officers (a PE teacher and health promotion practitioner) employed by the health service provided technical assistance to in-school champions throughout the study period (12 months). Their role was to provide in-school champions with expertise, advice and resources to help them problem solve barriers to policy implementation. In-person (at the school) & email/ telephone Project officer Email/ telephone Project officer
2. Mandate change
Barriers: Support from school boards; Physical activity considered a lower priority than other subjects
Opportunity: social (social influences)
Motivation: reflective (goals)
2a. Project officers had one ×1-hr meeting with school principals and school executives to communicate the importance and benefits of the policy and gain their commitment for policy implementation over the school year. In-person (at the school) Project officer Email/ telephone Project officer
2b. School executives were asked to demonstrate their commitment to implementing the policy through the development of a school policy (‘Sport and Physical Activity Procedures document’) as required by the policy. N/A N/A × N/A N/A
2c. Principals and school executives were asked to demonstrate their support for, and the importance of, the policy by communicating to the broader school community (e.g., via newsletters, assemblies and staff meetings) that the implementation of the policy was a school priority and expected of all staff. In-person (at the school) & email/telephone Principal/ school executive × In-person (at the school) & email/telephone Principal/school executive
3. Identify and prepare champions
Barriers: Lack of time in the curriculum; Teachers knowledge, ability or competence
Opportunity: social (environmental context and resources)
Psychological and physical capability (beliefs about capabilities)
3a. Each school nominated one to two in-school champions (existing teacher(s) at the school) who, with the support of the project officer, were responsible for leading the development and implementation of the policy in their school over the a 12 month period. N/A N/A × N/A N/A
3b. In-school champions attended one × full day (5-hour) training workshop with in-school champions from other schools (max 20 participants). These workshops covered: education about the policy, instruction and demonstration of energisers, active lessons and PE lessons, identification of barriers/ facilitators to implementation and possible solutions to overcome these. They also provided time to begin action planning. The training was accredited by the state educational authority and provided teachers continuing professional development hours. In-person (at venues with conference and catering facilities) Project officer × In-person (at venues with conference and catering facilities) Project officer
4. Develop a formal implementation blueprint
Barrier: Perceived priority of the policy in the schools
Motivation—reflective (goals) In-school champions were supported to develop a plan for policy implementation in their school. The plan identified what the school was aiming to achieve, the strategies to do so and by when, and the resources available or required. The plan was segmented into school terms to break up the more complex policy requirements into achievable tasks. N/A N/A × N/A N/A
5. Conduct educational outreach visits
Barrier: Teachers knowledge, ability or competence
Psychological and physical capability (beliefs about capabilities) School staff attended one × 1 to 2-hour information and training session delivered during a school staff meeting. Teachers were provided with an overview of the policy, including its importance and requirements for implementation. The plan for their schools’ implementation of the policy was presented as well as the timeline of expected key milestones. Staff participated in practical demonstrations of suggested physical activities (e.g., energisers and active lessons) which they could incorporate into their normal classroom routines. In-person (at the school in staff meeting room) Project officer In-person (at the school in staff meeting room) In-school champion
6. Develop and distribute educational materials
Barrier: Teachers knowledge, ability or competence
Psychological capability
(beliefs about capabilities; knowledge)
6a. In-school champions received an ‘intervention manual’ inclusive of policy templates as well as examples of a physical activity timetable and PE curriculum. Intervention manual N/A × Intervention manual N/A
6b. In-school champions and teachers received educational materials during their respective training sessions. These resources included ideas and strategies for practical games for increasing physical activity during class time, example timetables etc. Print copies and online portal N/A × Print copies and online portal N/A
6c. In-school champions and teachers were provided access to professional learning videos which reinforced information received during their respective training sessions. In-school champions were asked to view the videos and to organise a time for their colleagues to watch them during a staff meeting. Online Portal N/A × Online portal N/A
7. Capture and share local knowledge
Barriers: Teachers knowledge, ability or competence; Lack of time in the curriculum
Opportunity: social (social influences)
Motivation: reflective (belief about consequences)
In-school champions and teachers were provided access to case studies from other schools. Case studies described ‘success stories’ of how in-school champions and teachers had overcome frequently reported barriers to implement the policy in their school. Online Portal N/A × Online portal N/A
8. Change physical structure and equipment
Barrier: Availability of equipment
Opportunity: physical (environmental context and resources) 8a. Each school was provided with a physical activity pack consisting of items such as bean bags, balls, hoops etc., to engage in activities advertised in educational materials and/or exemplified during the in-school champion workshop and teacher training. N/A N/A × N/A N/A
8b. In-school champions were encouraged to develop classroom physical activity packs for all teachers using existing school sport equipment. These packs were to be kept in each classroom enabling teachers to implement suggested activities more easily. N/A N/A × N/A N/A
  1. aPlease see Nathan et al. [25] for a more detailed explanation of the hypothesised mechanisms of action via the BCW and TDF