Skip to main content

Table 3 Cross-sectional associations of Grade 4 MVPA and Grade 4 standardized test scores, moderated by student and school characteristics a

From: Physical activity and academic achievement: an analysis of potential student- and school-level moderators

  Math ELA Lexile
  Association (SE) p Association (SE) p Association (SE) p
Student Characteristics
 MVPA -0.237 (0.090) 0.009 -0.148(0.094) 0.115 -0.227 (0.416) 0.585
 Student female gender -8.839 (0.981) 0.000 3.250 (1.050) 0.002 9.657 (4.793) 0.044
 MVPA * gender -0.082 (0.114) 0.472 -0.127 (0.132) 0.340 -0.665 (0.598) 0.267
 MVPA -0.216 (0.104) 0.039 -0.139 (0.109) 0.205 0.018 (0.488) 0.970
 Student FRL -3.714 (1.095) 0.001 -1.081 (1.228) 0.380 -5.421 (5.594) 0.333
 Interaction -0.096 (0.114) 0.400 -0.107 (0.126) 0.397 -0.904 (0.570) 0.114
 MVPA -0.139 (0.132) 0.295 -0.007 (0.143) 0.962 0.701 (0.642) 0.276
 Hispanic -5.503 (1.506) 0.000 -0.828 (1.693) 0.625 -2.566 (7.692) 0.739
 Black -5.496 (1.408) 0.000 0.798 (1.568) 0.612 -0.065 (7.108) 0.993
 Asian 5.166 (1.606) 0.001 10.300 (1.802) 0.000 43.931 (8.202) 0.000
 Mixed -0.620 (2.257) 0.784 2.227 (2.522) 0.377 -8.799 (11.460) 0.443
 MVPA*Hispanic -0.273 (0.159) 0.087 -0.320 (0.178) 0.073 -2.150 (0.805) 0.008
 MVPA*Black -0.059 (0.153) 0.700 -0.293 (0.178) 0.100 -1.809 (0.781) 0.021
 MVPA*Asian 0.001 (0.192) 0.995 0.134 (0.218) 0.540 0.642 (0.976) 0.511
 MVPA*Mixed -0.507 (0.290) 0.082 -0.399 (0.322) 0.217 -1.116 (1.462) 0.446
School Characteristics
 MVPA -0.269 (0.075) 0.001 -0.197 (0.077) 0.011 -0.480 (0.345) 0.165
 School % FRL -0.064 (0.165) 0.699 -0.055 (0.177) 0.755 -0.349 (0.660) 0.598
 MVPA * % FRL -0.003 (0.002) 0.269 -0.004 (0.003) 0.098 -0.036 (0.012) 0.002
 MVPA -0.561 (2.273) 0.805 0.639 (2.471) 0.796 -1.645 (9.087) 0.856
 SPAPA Recess -0.257 (0.092) 0.006 -0.055 (0.177) 0.202 -0.382 (0.475) 0.422
 MVPA*SPAPA Recess -0.020 (0.869) 0.869 -0.118 (0.135) 0.381 -0.207 (0.599) 0.730
 MVPA -1.045 (2.007) 0.603 -0.959 (2.178) 0.660 -3.727 (7.986) 0.641
 SPAPA PE -0.232 (0.104) 0.026 -0.245 (0.118) 0.039 -0.921 (0.543) 0.091
 MVPA*SPAPA PE -0.020 (0.869) 0.661 -0.068 (0.136) 0.616 0.654 (0.634) 0.303
  1. a Models adjusted for student sex, race/ethnicity, FRL status, English Language Learner status, student with disabilities status, Grade 3 absences, Grade 3 tardies, special education course enrollment, school percentage female, school percentage black, school percentage Hispanic, school percentage FRL, school cohort (intervention or control), departmentalization, and prior achievement for the specific academic outcome (e.g., when assessing math grade as outcome, used Grade 3 average math grade). The 95% Confidence Interval for the indirect effect was found using the Monte Carlo method. In bold are the indirect effects found to be statistically significant using a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.00038