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Table 3 Relationship between average daily soft drink consumption and body composition variables a

From: Sizing the association between lifestyle behaviours and fatness in a large, heterogeneous sample of youth of multiple ethnicities from 4 countries

   New Zealand Fiji Tonga Australia All
  Cans per day Pacific (N = 770) Maori (N = 348) Asian (N = 134) European (N = 233) All New Zealand (N = 1485) Indigenous Fijian (N = 611) Fijian Indian (N = 832) All Fiji (N = 1443) Tongan (N = 1019) Australian (N = 1673) All (N = 5620)d
Mean BMIb 0 25.10 (0.40) 23.76 (0.63) 20.52 (0.40) 21.21 (0.27) 23.70 (0.35) 21.69 (0.26) 18.87 (0.20) 20.05 (0.15) 21.95 (0.14) 20.68 (0.10) 21.52 (0.10)
Increment in BMIc >0-2 0.04 (0.46) -0.13 (0.61) -0.33 (0.33) 0.56 (0.32) 0.11 (0.34) -0.17 (0.23) 0.09 (0.22) -0.01 (0.13) 0.46 (0.14) 0.07 (0.14) 0.17 (0.10)
>2 0.12 (0.60) 2.03 (0.86)* 0.73 (0.63) 1.79 (0.69)* 0.88 (0.52) 0.52 (0.44) -0.14 (0.38) 0.16 (0.29) 1.42 (0.25) 0.46 (0.23)* 0.75 (0.21)
Mean BMIzb 0 1.36 (0.08) 1.00 (0.15) 0.05 (0.12) 0.26 (0.07) 0.97 (0.08) 0.40 (0.08) -0.67 (0.08) -0.22 (0.06) 0.60 (0.04) 0.28 (0.03) 0.38 (0.03)
Increment in BMIzc >0-2 0.01 (0.09) 0.00 (0.14) -0.14 (0.09) 0.13 (0.07) 0.03 (0.08) -0.04 (0.07) 0.01 (0.09) -0.01 (0.05) 0.11 (0.04)* 0.02 (0.04) 0.05 (0.03)
>2 0.04 (0.12) 0.51 (0.20)* 0.27 (0.17) 0.53 (0.17) 0.23 (0.12) 0.17 (0.13) -0.05 (0.16) 0.04 (0.11) 0.37 (0.07) 0.15 (0.07)* 0.20 (0.06)
Mean %BFb 0 31.10 (1.07) 28.94 (1.45) 21.96 (0.54) 24.22 (0.53) 28.48 (0.82) 20.78 (0.64) 22.29 (0.51) 21.61 (0.41) 21.16 (0.58) 26.30 (0.26) 24.59 (0.28)
Increment in %BFc >0-2 -0.88 (1.12) -0.43 (1.28) -0.59 (0.89) 0.27 (0.94) -0.36 (0.85) -0.70 (0.45) 0.23 (0.61) -0.11 (0.38) 1.64 (0.47) -0.22 (0.44) 0.36 (0.31)
>2 -0.81 (1.52) 5.38 (1.93) 1.94 (1.23) 6.01 (3.38) 1.84 (1.48) 0.77 (1.04) -0.50 (0.81) 0.13 (0.70) 3.32 (0.43) -0.17 (0.70) 1.49 (0.56)*
Mean TFMb 0 22.91 (1.27) 20.67 (1.75) 12.34 (0.54) 15.11 (0.44) 20.07 (0.97) 12.53 (0.54) 11.19 (0.41) 11.69 (0.34) 12.89 (0.42) 15.05 (0.20) 15.03 (0.25)
Increment in TFMc >0-2 -0.04 (1.34) -0.41 (1.69) -0.49 (0.51) 0.56 (1.03) 0.06 (1.02) -0.57 (0.44) 0.21 (0.47) -0.04 (0.33) 1.38 (0.36) -0.02 (0.31) 0.40 (0.28)
>2 0.32 (1.68) 6.23 (2.45)* 1.66 (0.94) 5.70 (2.83)* 2.58 (1.54) 1.11 (0.96) -0.58 (0.70) 0.28 (0.63) 3.16 (0.45) 0.09 (0.64) 1.76 (0.55)
  1. aAdjusted for age and sex. “New Zealand All”, “Fiji All” and “All countries” were further adjusted for ethnicity; bStandard error in parentheses; cCompared to “0 cans per day” (reference category). Standard error in parentheses; dR2 for BMI, BMIz, %BF and TFM models = 0.312, 0.310, 0.245 and 0.225, respectively; BMI = Body mass index (kg/m2); BMIz = BMI z-score; %BF = Percent body fat (%); TFM = Total fat mass (kg); *P<0.05; P <0.01; P <0.001.