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Table 3 Results from single and multiple mediation models (B, 95% confidence interval) examining potential cognitive mediators of duration of sport participation (>=30 min/wk) 1

From: Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10–12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project

   Single mediator models Multiple mediator models
  Path a B (95% CI) Path b OR (95% CI) Mediated effect (95% CI)2 Path b OR (95%CI) Mediated effect (95% CI)2 Percent Mediated3
Physical activity equipment       
  Attitude 0.018 (0.012, 0.023) 2.42 (2.05, 2.87) 0.024 (0.017, 0.031) 1.33 (1.10, 1.61) 0.008 (0.002, 0.013) 6.6%
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.039 (0.019, 0.059) 1.11 (1.06, 1.16) 0.005 (0.002, 0.008) 1.07 (1.02, 1.12) 0.003 (0.001, 0.006) 2.8%
  Enjoyment 0.020 (0.012, 0.028) 2.51 (2.20, 2.87) 0.031 (0.022, 0.040) 1.62 (1.39, 1.88) 0.016 (0.010, 0.023) 12.8%
  Perceived behavioural control 0.034 (0.022, 0.046) 2.14 (1.97, 2.33) 0.036 (0.026, 0.047) 1.85 (1.69, 2.01) 0.029 (0.020, 0.038) 21.0%
  Total mediated effect      0.056 (0.045, 0.067) 33.9%
Financial support       
  Attitude 0.042 (0.033, 0.051) 2.27 (1.91, 2.69) 0.034 (0.024, 0.044) 1.30 (1.07, 1.58) 0.011 (0.003, 0.020) 2.9%
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.041 (0.013, 0.069) 1.11 (1.06, 1.17) 0.004 (0.001, 0.008) 1.07 (1.02, 1.13) 0.003 (0.000, 0.006) 0.8%
  Enjoyment 0.079 (0.067, 0.092) 2.29 (2.00, 2.61) 0.066 (0.051, 0.080) 1.50 (1.30, 1.74) 0.032 (0.020, 0.045) 8.1%
  Perceived behavioural control 0.087 (0.069, 0.105) 2.08 (1.91, 2.26) 0.064 (0.049, 0.079) 1.83 (1.67, 2.00) 0.053 (0.039, 0.066) 12.5%
  Total mediated effect      0.099 (0.082, 0.116) 21.2%
Logistic support       
  Attitude 0.036 (0.027, 0.045) 2.35 (1.98, 2.79) 0.031 (0.021, 0.041) 1.34 (1.11, 1.63) 0.011 (0.003, 0.018) 3.1%
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.032 (0.003, 0.060) 1.12 (1.07, 1.17) 0.004 (0.000, 0.007) 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) 0.002 (0.000, 0.005) 0.7%
  Enjoyment 0.070 (0.057, 0.082) 2.37 (2.07, 2.71) 0.060 (0.046, 0.074) 1.53 (1.32, 1.78) 0.030 (0.018, 0.041) 8.2%
  Perceived behavioural control 0.087 (0.070, 0.105) 2.09 (1.92, 2.27) 0.064 (0.049, 0.079) 1.82 (1.66, 1.99) 0.052 (0.039, 0.065) 13.5%
  Total mediated effect      0.092 (0.076, 0.109) 21.7%
Emotional support       
  Attitude 0.035 (0.023, 0.047) 2.43 (2.05, 2.87) 0.031 (0.019, 0.043) 1.35 (1.12, 1.63) 0.011 (0.003, 0.018) 3.1
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.059 (0.021, 0.096) 1.11 (1.06, 1.17) 0.006 (0.001, 0.011) 1.07 (1.02, 1.12) 0.004 (0.000, 0.008) 1.2
  Enjoyment 0.062 (0.046, 0.079) 2.47 (2.16, 2.82) 0.057 (0.039, 0.074) 1.59 (1.37, 1.85) 0.029 (0.017, 0.041) 8.1
  Perceived behavioural control 0.088 (0.064, 0.112) 2.12 (1.95, 2.30) 0.066 (0.046, 0.085) 1.83 (1.67, 2.00) 0.053 (0.035, 0.070) 13.9
  Total mediated effect      0.096 (0.076, 0.117) 22.8%
Reinforcement       
  Attitude 0.010 (-0.001, 0.020) 2.57 (2.17, 3.04) 0.009 (-0.001, 0.019) - - -
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.016 (-0.018, 0.050) 1.12 (1.07, 1.18) 0.002 (-0.002, 0.006) - - -
  Enjoyment 0.016 (0.001, 0.031) 2.59 (2.27, 2.96) 0.015 (0.001, 0.030) 1.82 (1.58, 2.09) 0.009 (0.000, 0.019) 50.3%
  Perceived behavioural control 0.025 (0.003, 0.047) 2.19 (2.01, 2.37) 0.020 (0.003, 0.037) 1.90 (1.74, 2.07) 0.016 (0.002, 0.030) 63.1%
  Total mediated effect      0.026 (0.009, 0.042) 73.1%
Parental modelling (hr/week)       
  Attitude 0.007 (0.002, 0.011) 2.55 (2.15, 3.01) 0.006 (0.002, 0.011) 1.37 (1.14, 1.66) 0.002 (0.000, 0.004) 3.8%
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.030 (0.015, 0.045) 1.12 (1.07, 1.17) 0.003 (0.001, 0.005) 1.07 (1.02, 1.13) 0.002 (0.000, 0.004) 3.8%
  Enjoyment 0.007 (0.001, 0.013) 2.58 (2.26, 2.95) 0.007 (0.001, 0.013) 1.63 (1.41, 1.89) 0.004 (0.000, 0.007) 6.2%
  Perceived behavioural control 0.021 (0.012, 0.031) 2.17 (2.00, 2.36) 0.017 (0.009, 0.024) 1.85 (1.69, 2.02) 0.013 (0.007, 0.019) 19.6%
  Total mediated effect      0.021 (0.014, 0.028) 28.0%
Co-participation       
  Attitude 0.006 (-0.002, 0.014) 2.57 (2.18, 3.05) 0.006 (-0.002, 0.014) - - -
  Beliefs about weight gain 0.010 (-0.016, 0.037) 1.12 (1.07, 1.18) 0.001 (-0.002, 0.004) - - -
  Enjoyment 0.014 (0.002, 0.026) 2.60 (2.27, 2.96) 0.013 (0.002, 0.025) 1.82 (1.59, 2.09) 0.008 (0.001, 0.016) suppressed
  Perceived behavioural control 0.033 (0.016, 0.050) 2.19 (2.02, 2.38) 0.026 (0.012, 0.040) 1.90 (1.74, 2.07) 0.021 (0.010, 0.033) suppressed
  Total mediated effect      0.030 (0.016, 0.043) suppressed
  1. Path a: association between family environment variable and mediator; Path b: association between mediator and sports participation.
  2. 1 Path a and path b adjusted for covariates (child age, sex, responding parents’ highest education level).
  3. 2 Mediated effect calculated from path b coefficient (not Odds Ratio).
  4. 3 Percentage mediated: a*b/c’+a*b.
  5. Bold: significant associations.