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Table 3 Associations identified between potential covariates and IFSQ subscales in the toddler sample

From: The association of breastfeeding duration with later maternal feeding styles in infancy and toddlerhood: a cross-sectional analysis

  Responsive subscales Restrictive subscales Pressuring to eat subscales Indulgent subscales Laissez-Faire subscales
Infant Gender      
Infant Relative Weighta      
Maternal Education Level Diet Quality** Satiety and Hunger Cues* Cereal** Coaxing*  
    Permissive*  
    Soothe*  
Maternal Ethnicity    Cereal** Coaxing* Attention*
   To Soothe* Soothe*  
Family Income Level     Pampering*  
Marital Status Diet Quality*    Coaxing** Attention*
Amount of Food Consumed*   Cereal** Permissive**  
    Soothe**  
Maternal Weight Status      
  1. *p<0.05
  2. **p<0.01
  3. a The association between infant relative weight and the IFSQ subscales were assessed by Spearman Correlation, due to the continuous nature of the covariate, while Analysis of Variance analyses were performed for all other covariates.
  4. Note: All categorical covariates were coded as follows: Gender (Male=1, Female=2); Maternal Education Level (College Grad or Higher=1, Less than College Grad=0); Maternal Ethnicity (White=1, Black=2, 3=Hispanic); Income level (1=less than $35,000, 2=$35,000-49,999, 3=$50,000-74,999, 4=$75,000-99,999, 5=100,000 or greater); Marital Status (Married=1, Not Married=0); Maternal weight status (Overweight/Obese=1, Not overweight/obese=0).