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Table 3 Mean daily sales and gross profits in the full sample, n ± SEM (%)

From: Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

  Pre- and post- interventiona Signage Signage + taste Signage + taste + price P value for interaction with period Overall mean for all periods P value for main effect
Mean daily number of items sold b
Dietary quality      NS   < 0.0001
Healthy items 18.1 ± 2.4 (37.7) 21.5 ± 3.2 (42.3) 18.4 ± 3.3 (35.7) 27.4 ± 3.2 (46.5)   21.4 ±1.5* (40.8)  
Unhealthy items 29.9 ± 2.4 (62.3) 29.4 ± 3.2 (57.7) 33.1 ± 3.3 (64.3) 31.5 ± 3.2 (53.5)   31.0 ± 1.5 (59.2)  
Mean total daily sales 24.0 ± 1.8 (23.0) 25.4 ± 2.3 (24.3) 25.7 ± 2.4 (24.6) 29.4 ± 2.3 (28.1)   25.7 ± 1.8 NS
Mean daily number of calories sold b
Dietary quality      NS   < 0.0001
Healthy items 3067 ± 636 (27.6) 3860 ± 847 (33.0) 2766 ± 877 (23.5) 4955 ± 857 (37.0)   3662 ± 396* (30.5)  
Unhealthy items 8041 ± 636 (72.4) 7821 ± 847 (67.0) 8999 ± 877 (76.5) 8448 ± 857 (63.0)   8327 ± 396 (69.5)  
Mean total calories sold 5554 ± 480 (23.2) 5841 ± 606 (24.4) 5883 ± 647 (24.5) 6701 ± 620 (27.9)   5907 ± 381 NS
Mean daily gross profits in dollars b
Dietary quality      NS   < 0.0001
Healthy items 40.52 ± 6.20 (35.0) 46.05 ± 8.25 (38.3) 38.92 ± 8.53 (31.5) 37.04 ± 8.34 (31.8)   40.63 ± 3.85* (34.1)  
Unhealthy items 75.29 ± 6.20 (65.0) 74.27 ± 8.25 (61.7) 84.60 ± 8.53 (68.5) 79.49 ± 8.34 (68.2)   78.41 ± 3.85 (65.9)  
Mean total daily gross profits 57.91 ± 4.67 (24.3) 60.16 ± 5.91 (25.3) 61.76 ± 6.29 (25.9) 58.26 ± 6.03 (24.5)   59.20 ± 3.82 NS
  1. n = 6175 items sold during the study; ANCOVA was used to test for main effects and interactions.
  2. aValues for the pre- and post-intervention periods were combined as they were not significantly different.
  3. bValues are adjusted for daily hours of operation, number of pool patrons, and maximum temperature reached.
  4. *Value differs significantly from the corresponding value for unhealthy items, p < 0.05.