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Table 3 Individual daily food baskets and redistributive effects at baseline and under price manipulations

From: Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

  Low-income (LI) group Medium-income (MI) group Difference LI-MI
n = 95 n = 33   Δ test2
Expenditures, € per day     
Baseline 5.23 ± 2.2 5.62 ± 1.5 -0.39 [0.0154]  
Fruit and vegetable condition 4.45 ± 1.6 (<.0001) 5.18 ± 1.9 (0.0123) -0.73 [0.0369] 0.2643
Nutrient profile condition 4.34 ± 1.9 (<.0001) 4.73 ± 1.9 (<.0001) -0.39 [0.1665] 0.2331
Redistributive effects1, € per day     
Fruit and vegetable condition 0.42 ± 0.3 0.66 ± 0.5 -0.24 [0.001] n.a.
Nutrient profile condition 0.41 ± 0.8 1.36 ± 1.0 -0.95 [<.0001] n.a.
Energy Density, kcal per 100 g     
Baseline 141.82 ± 32.5 122.61 ± 22.0 19.21 [0.0003]  
Fruit and vegetable condition 134.29 ± 22.2 (0.0147) 106.40 ± 27.0 (<.0001) 27.89 [<.0001] 0.0002
Nutrient profile condition 131.51 ± 17.94 (<.0001) 107.21 ± 17.31 (<.0001) 24.30 [<.0001] 0.0022
Mean Adequacy Ratio, % adequacy per day     
Baseline 55.23 ± 14.2 61.12 ± 9.7 -5.89 [0.0002]  
Fruit and vegetable condition 58.44 ± 11.0 (<.0001) 63.41. ± 13.4 (0.0457) -4.97 [ 0.0409] 0.0577
Nutrient profile condition 56.54 ± 12.1 (0.0210) 63.35 ± 11.7 (0.0406) -6.81 [0.0020] 0.4588
Free sugars, % energy     
Baseline 12.5 ± 2.3 11.09 ± 1.59 1.41 [0.0003]  
Fruit and vegetable condition 13.03 ± 2 (<.0001) 10.07 ± 2.43 (<.0001) 2.96 [<.0001] <.0001
Nutrient profile condition 12.6 ± 1.9 (0.1256) 10.91 ± 1.88 (0.0989) 1.69 [<.0001] 0.0259
  1. 1crude values.
  2. 2test for difference between groups of average changes from baseline values.
  3. Note: values are the mean ± standard deviation and, in brackets, p-value against null hypothesis of difference from baseline or between income groups (Wilcoxon test). Except for redistributive effects, values are energy-adjusted.