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Table 1 Baseline characteristics at child age five years

From: A longitudinal study of children’s outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

  Total (n = 2007) Boys (n = 1013) Girls (n = 994)
Child socio-demographics    
Age at baseline; mean years (sd) (missing n = 6) 5.75 (0.42) 5.77 (0.42) 5.72 (0.41)
Ethnic background; n Dutch (%) (missing n = 27) 1804 (91.10) 996 (98.61) 974 (98.38)
BMI; mean kg/m2 (sd) (missing n = 6) 15.39 (1.47) 15.42 (1.35) 15.36 (1.59)
Average minutes of outside play; mean (sd) (missing n =0) 108.99 (65.01) 112.72 (65.86) 104.72 (63.41)
Outside play ≥ 60 minutes per day, n (%) (missing =0) 76.3 78.9 73.6
Parental socio-demographics    
Age; mean years (sd), in years (missing n = 6) 37.14 (4.38) 37.07 (4.37) 37.21 (4.40)
Gender; n male (%) (missing n = 7) 179 (9.00) 94 (9.31) 85 (8.59)
Ethnic background; n Dutch (%) (missing n = 1) 1909 (95.20) 996 (97.67) 943 (96.38)
Education level; n (%) (missing n = 1)    
Low 50 (2.50) 23 (2.27) 27 (2.72)
Mid-low 288 (14.40) 142 (14.03) 146 (14.69)
Mid-high 902 (45.00) 463 (45.75) 439 (44.16)
High 766 (38.20) 384 (37.94) 382 (38.43)
BMI; mean kg/m2 (sd) (missing n = 32) 23.94 (7.98) 24.11 (10.65) 23.77 (3.60)
Family environment    
Parental attitude; meanscore (sd) (missing n = 16) 3.61 (1.05) 3.60 (1.06) 3.62 (1.04)
Family attitude; meanscore (sd) (missing n = 42) 2.76 (1.04) 2.73 (1.04) 2.79 (1.04)
Self-confidence; n agree (%) (missing n = 86) 1021 (53.10) 529 (54.37) 492 (51.90)
Perceived difficulty; n agree (%) (missing n = 53) 220 (11.30) 107 (10.81) 113 (11.72)
Habit strength; n agree (%) (missing n = 30) 1607 (81.30) 836 (83.52) 771 (79.00)
Intention to improve; n agree (%) (missing n = 51) 881 (45.00) 438 (44.20) 443 (45.91)
Monitoring; n frequent (%) (missing n = 7) 1565 (78.30) 794 (78.69) 711 (77.80)
Active encouragement; n frequent (%) (missing n = 12) 1639 (82.60) 822 (82.28) 817 (82.86)
Child autonomy; n frequent (%) (missing n = 18) 421 (21.10) 215 (21.39) 206 (20.81)
Perception of outside play; n more (%) (missing n = 42) 539 (27.40) 295 (29.65) 244 (25.15)
Presence of rules; % with rules (missing n = 118) 814 (43.10) 425 (44.69) 389 (41.47)
Modelling parent, mean days PA (sd) (missing n = 169) 4.49 (2.10) 4.49 (2.12) 4.49 (2.08)
Modelling partner, mean days PA (sd) (missing n = 157) 4.83 (2.27) 4.83 (2.30) 4.81 (2.24)
Modelling siblings, mean days PA (sd) (missing n = 266) 6.58 (1.61) 6.59 (1.62) 6.56 (1.61)
Perceived physical environment    
Traffic business; n agree (%) (missing n = 2) 567 (28.30) 279 (27.57) 288 (29.00)
Safety perception during daytime; n agree (%) (missing n = 11) 1460 (73.10) 751 (74.50) 709 (71.76)
Safety perception during evenings; n agree (%) (missing n = 17) 1035 (52.00) 543 (54.19) 492 (49.80)
Presence of sidewalks; n agree (%) (missing n = 11) 1365 (68.40) 701 (69.47) 664 (67.27)
Friendliness for children; n agree (%) (missing n = 10) 1661 (83.20) 847 (84.11) 814 (82.22)
Attractiveness for children; n agree (%) (missing n = 14) 1502 (75.20) 763 (75.84) 739 (74.50)
Opportunities for outside play; n agree (%) (missing n = 16) 1390 (69.70) 703 (69.81) 687 (69.60)
Safety without supervision; n agree (%) (missing n = 12) 1093 (54.80) 557 (55.42) 537 (54.09)
  1. Chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables, Numbers printed in bold represent p < 0.05.