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Table 4 Results of the multiple (logistic) regression analyses for the associations of friend norm, friend modelling, parental norm, parental modelling and family rules, adjusted for each other, with high soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation

From: Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours – the ENERGY cross-sectional study

  Soft drink intake(>200 ml/day) TV viewing (min/week) Daily breakfast consumption Sport participation (min/week)
  ORa 95% CI ba 95% CI ORa 95%CI ba 95% CI
Friend norm (If I < do specific behaviour > my friends think this is.....) Bad- very bad 0.89 0.69 1.15 −42.3 −77.0 −7.60 0.74 0.44 1.25 an.c.b   
Neither good nor bad Ref c Ref Ref Ref
Good - very good 1.22 1.08 1.37 50.9 29.0 72.8     30.6 15.7 45.5
Friend modelling (How often do your friends < specific behaviour > ....) Never -not often 0.66 0.53 0.82 −71.4 −128.8 −14.1 0.50 0.38 0.66 n.c.   
Sometimes Ref Ref Ref Ref
Often - always 1.70 1.51 1.91 74.3 51.3 97.4     27.8 17.6 38.0
Parental norm (If I < do specific behaviour > my parents think this is.....) Bad- very bad 0.67 0.59 0.76 Ref    0.39 0.18 0.85 n.c.   
Neither good nor bad Ref     Ref n.c.   
Good - very good 1.42 1.19 1.68 59.5 23.1 95.9     n.c.   
Parental modelling (how often do your parents < specific behaviour > ....) Never -not often 0.46 0.41 0.52 Ref    0.41 0.36 0.47 −21.0 −31.3 −10.8
Sometimes Ref     Ref Ref
Often - always 1.93 1.65 2.25 135.2 115.6 154.7     33.6 25.4 41.8
family rules (Do your parents/caregivers have rules about….) No Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.74 0.67 0.83 −146.2 −165.1 −127.4 1.64 1.47 1.82 20.5 12.8 28.2
  1. aall models are additionally adjusted for sex, age and country; Bold – significant at p < 0.05; bn.c – not calculated (due to very small group(s)); cref – reference category.