Skip to main content

Table 5 Associations of friend norm and friend modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast and sport participation stratified a by family rules, parental norm and parental modelling

From: Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours – the ENERGY cross-sectional study

   Soft drink intake (>200ml/day) TV viewing (min/week) Sport participation (min/week)
Parental rules in place Friend norm P-value interaction term ORb 95% CI P-value interaction term bb 95% CI P-value interaction term bb 95% CI
No Bad- very bad   -    0.079 −117.2 −181.8 −52.7   n.c.c   
Neither good nor bad   -     Refd     Ref   
Good - very good   -    0.059 107.2 74.1 140.3 0.070 53.1 36.2 70.0
Yes Bad- very bad   -     −42.1 −82.6 −1.6   n.c.   
Neither good nor bad   -     Ref     Ref   
Good - very good   -     81.5 54.7 108.3   20.3 −4.57 45.2
  Friend modelling             
No Never -not often 0.188 .48 .34 .66 0.878 −91.1 −187.2 5.1   n.c.   
Sometimes 0.077 Ref     Ref     Ref   
often - always 0.149 2.16 1.85 2.52 0.001 163.3 128.3 198.4 0.003 48.1 36.3 59.8
Yes Never -not often   .60 .46 .80   −78.9 −148.0 −9.7   n.c   
Sometimes   Ref     Ref     Ref   
Often - always   1.87 1.60 2.17   95.8 67.9 123.7   20.1 4.11 36.1
Parental norm Friend modelling             
‘Very bad -neither good nor bad’ Never -not often      0.009 .96 −81.8 83.7     
Sometimes       Ref       
Ooften - always      0.281 136.1 107.4 164.8     
‘Good - very good’ Never -not often       −145.2 −225.5 −65.0     
Sometimes       Ref       
Often - always       110.3 75.0 145.6     
Parental modelling Friend modelling p-value for interaction term bb 95% CI   friend modelling p-value for interaction term       
‘Never - sometimes’ Never -not often <0.001 −147.6 e −210.1 −85.2 ‘never - not often’ never -not often 0.035 .68 .44 1.06   
Sometimes   Refe    sometimes - always   Ref     
Often - always <0.001 62.7 e 37.1 88.4
‘Often - always’ never -not often   119.9 −3.7 243.5 ‘Sometimes – always’ never -not often   .42 f .30 .58   
sometimes   Ref    sometimes - always   Reff     
often - always   152.7 108.4 197.0
  1. astratified analyses were only conducted in case of significant interaction terms between parent and peer influences; b all models are adjusted for sex, age and country; Bold – significant at p < 0.05 for associations, p < 0.1 for interaction terms; cn.c – not calculated (due to very small group(s)); dref – reference category; ethe parental modelling categories ‘never – not often’ and ‘sometimes’ were merged; fthe parental modelling categories ‘sometimes’ and ‘often-always’ were merged.