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Table 2 Pattern of findings for links between environmental attributes (perceived and objective) and children's physical activity.

From: Do attributes in the physical environment influence children's physical activity? A review of the literature

  Associations with physical activity
Environmental Attribute Perceived Environment Objectively measured environment
  Adult report Child report  
Recreational infrastructure    
Private    
   Home equipment   0 (19) 0 (25) 0 (26) + (F)(31) + (20) 0 (22)
Public    
   Proximity of playgrounds and parks 0 (B)(16) 0 (28) + (22) 0 (B)(16) + (24) + (M)(21)
   Availability recreation facilities 0 (28) + (18) 0 (F)(19) + (27) + (32) + (20) + (F)(24) + (F)(34) + (F)(17) + (F)(37)
   Spending on recreational infrastructure    0 (17)
   Distance to school (school location)    - (36) - (F)(38) - (33)
   School size    0 (30) 0 (33)
   Equipment/play structures in school play areas   +(20) 0 (35) + (23) + (29)
Transport infrastructure    
Provision of amenities    
   Presence of sidewalks   0 (32) + (33) + (39)
   Street and sidewalk conditions    + (40)
   Presence of bike lanes/ease of cycling   - (M)(18) 0 (40) 0 (33)
   Presence of controlled crossings + (M)(24)   + (39)
   Connectivity of street network   0 (32) + (30) - (36) + (F)(37)
   Access to destinations   + (32) - (F)(18) + (M)(37)
   Availability of public transportation + (F)(24)   
Road hazards    
   Number of roads to cross - (24)   
   Traffic (density/speed) - (M)(24) - (18)   - (36)
   Pedestrian and cyclist safety + (F)(18)   
   Steep terrain    - (36)
Local conditions    
Safety and neighborhood disorder    
   Perceived safety 0 (45) 0 (B)(16) 0 (28) 0 (48) + (44) 0 (27) 0 (B)(16) 0 (32) + (F)(21)  
   Area deprivation and crime    - (F)(17) - (F)(21) - (43)
   Roaming dogs   - (18)  
   Social disorder/stranger danger 0 (24)   - (44)
   Physical disorder/tidiness of area    0 (40) - (44)
   Aesthetics of neighborhood   + (32)  
Region and weather    
   Month of year (average temperature)    0 (43) - 11 - (M)(17)
   Unsuitable weather   0 (46) 0 (47) - (17)
   Region of the United States    0 (43)
   Rural/suburban versus urban    0 (47) + (B)(42) - (W)(42)
   Population density    + (30) 0 (33)
  1. Note:
  2. 1 Associations identified with physical activity: +, significant positive association; -, significant negative association; 0, no association.
  3. Superscript numbers = reference number.
  4. Effects that are specific to particular demographic groups are noted as follows: M = males; F = females; B = Black/African American sample or subgroup