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Table 1 Quasi-experimental studies examining the influence of sport, physical education or physical activity upon academic achievement.

From: Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

Author Sample Milieu Intervention Outcome measure Response
Fourestier [7] Children in final year of primary school (13 years), 1 class, n = ? Vanves (Paris) Various sports and other activities, 13 h/wk increase for one year Overall academic performance Enhanced in experimental group
Shephard et al. [8] 546 children in grades 1 through 6 Trois Rivières, Québec 5 h of specialist physical education per week for 6 years Teacher ratings, Standard Provincial examination, WISC tests Enhanced teacher ratings, Maths but not English improved in Provincial exams, 3–4% gain on WISC
Sallis et al. [9] 655 children grades 5 and 6 California 27–42 min additional physical education per week for two years Metropolitan achievement tests Non-significant trend to gains in English, arithmetic and behaviour
Dwyer et al. [11] 500 10-year-old students South Australia 75 min/day of endurance training Scores for reading and arithmetic Non-significant trend to gains in English and arithmetic at 2-year follow up
Ahamed et al. [13] 287 9–11 year old primary students British Columbia Added 47 min/wk of varied activities for 16 months Canadian Achievement Test (CAT-3) Slight trend to improved scores
Coe et al. [14] 214 grade 6 students Western Michigan, U.S.A. Nominal 55 min/day (actual 19 min/day) physical education for one semester Classroom assessments and nationally standardized achievement scores No change in academic performance except in sub-group who exercised vigorously
Raviv et al. [15] 358 kindergarten and grade 1 students Israel One-year movement education program Reading skills and arithmetic skills Both improved relative to controls