Skip to main content

Table 3 Change in perceived neighborhood characteristics, perceived social support provided in past month, neighborhood cohesion score and intrapersonal factors for non-owners at baseline by dog ownership status at one year follow-up

From: Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

Physical environmental sub-scales: % New dog owners (n = 92) % Continuing non-owners (n = 681) p value
Land use mix-access    
   No change 45.7 48.4 0.596
   Increase 14.1 10.6  
   Decrease 40.2 40.9  
Aesthetics    
   No change 53.8 48.3 0.423
   Increase 25.3 32.0  
   Decrease 20.9 19.7  
Walking facilities    
   No change 57.6 54.7 0.810
   Increase 22.8 25.9  
   Decrease 19.6 19.4  
Park or nature reserve that's easily accessible    
   No change 58.7 53.0 0.582
   Increase 28.3 31.8  
   Decrease 13.0 15.2  
Street connectivity    
   No change 56.5 61.9 0.164
   Increase 22.8 24.8  
   Decrease 20.7 13.3  
Pedestrian/traffic safety    
   No change 53.8 47.7 0.200
   Increase 24.2 33.5  
   Decrease 22.0 18.8  
Crime safety    
   No change 50.0 48.7 0.801
   Increase 40.2 43.1  
   Decrease 9.8 8.1  
Design of new neighborhood    
   Conventional 53.3 51.0 0.913
   Hybrid 18.5 19.0  
   Liveable 28.3 30.0  
Social environmental sub-scales:    
Social support from family for walking    
   No change 33.3 37.6 0.244
   Increase 44.0 34.8  
   Decrease 22.6 27.6  
Social support from friends for walking    
   No change 57.1 8.8 0.288
   Increase 17.9 22.7  
   Decrease 25.0 18.5  
Social support from family for other physical activity    
   No change 36.6 41.3 0.684
   Increase 35.4 33.8  
   Decrease 28.0 24.8  
Social support from friends for other physical activity    
   No change 51.2 56.4 0.398
   Increase 22.0 23.3  
   Decrease 26.8 20.4  
Neighborhood social cohesion    
   No change 38.5 47.1 0.154
   Increase 48.4 44.6  
   Decrease 13.2 8.3  
Intrapersonal items and sub-scales:    
Intention to walk for total 30 mins on ≥ 5 days/week    
   No change 19.6 31.3 0.001
   Increase 58.7 37.7  
   Decrease 21.7 31.0  
Intention to do vigorous leisure time physical activity    
for total three 20 min sessions/week    
   No change 28.3 32.6 0.378
   Increase 30.4 33.4  
   Decrease 41.3 34.0  
Intention to do other moderate leisure time physical    
activity for total 30 mins on ≥ 5 days/week    
   No change 20.7 28.5 0.178
   Increase 37.0 37.5  
   Decrease 42.4 34.0  
Enjoyment of walking in neighborhood    
   No change 60.4 57.6 0.860
   Increase 16.5 18.5  
   Decrease 23.1 23.9  
Attitude toward process of trying to walk on most days    
   No change 40.2 44.6 0.699
   Increase 39.1 35.2  
   Decrease 20.7 20.2  
Self-efficacy    
   No change 40.7 50.2 0.016
   Increase 34.1 20.7  
   Decrease 25.3 29.0  
Perceived behavioral control    
   No change 28.3 36.1 0.089
   Increase 47.8 36.1  
   Decrease 23.9 27.8  
Behavioral skills    
   No change 51.1 46.4 0.049
   Increase 30.4 23.3  
   Decrease 18.5 30.3