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Table 1 Breakdown of specific intervention components by time, targeted construct and methods

From: A school-based randomized controlled trial to improve physical activity among Iranian high school girls

Time Targeted theoretical constructs Methods used
Baseline Perceived benefits of physical activity. Group Educational session targeting:
- Specific written information about the benefits of PA and advice on how to make PA a part of their daily lives
  perceived barriers to physical activity - Individual counseling to provide tailored messages on strategies to overcome perceived barriers (e.g., inclement weather can be a barrier to walking that can be replaced doing exercise videos at home)
- Commitment to be physically active was emphasized.
- Participants received their log books and written educational materials.
  Interpersonal influences - In groups, teachers were educated about the importance of perceived social support and modeling so that they provide role modeling by doing exercise in the schools
Week 4 self-efficacy Group Educational session targeting:
- setting realistic goals by learning to start slowly and gradually increase number of days and number of minute of activity per day based on previously agreed goals.
- an increase in awareness of small changes that could be made to increase physical activity
  perceived barriers to physical activity - Individual counseling to provide tailored messages to review personal and environmental barriers and discuss on previously agreed goals.
- Participants received a reminder card and pamphlets.
Week 10 perceived barriers to physical activity Group Educational session targeting:
- Help to determine types, frequency, duration and intensity activity they can realistically fit into their daily schedule.
  Interpersonal influences - Small groups of girls formed to receive peer support, increase exposure modeling and interpersonal norms
- Help to develop social network by sharing commitment and plan of exercise.
- In groups, the participants' mothers received education about the importance of social support and family PA norms.
  Counter conditioning and stimulus control (only for THP group) Individually:
- Consult to determine when and what type of activity works best with their particular lifestyle and reward themselves for meeting their goals.
- Identify and avoid stimuli and other causes that provoke inactivity
Group Educational session targeting:
- Change surrounding to support goals by posting motivating message.
- Substitutions of physical activity for sedentary behavior suggested (e.g., taking fitness break by walking instead of taking a sedentary coffee break).
- Participants received a reminder card and pamphlets.
Week 18 perceived PA barriers and self efficacy. Individually:
- Consult to develop a PA plan in which they engage in PA at the recommended levels
- Contract renegotiation also deliver positive feedback and verbal persuasion.
- assist to identify risk factors and strategies to overcome future relapses such as during vacations, stressful life events, boredom of the PA routine (action and maintenance stages).
  interpersonal influences In groups, the participants' mothers were educated in the importance of social support and family PA norms.
  Counter conditioning and stimulus control(only for THP group) Group Educational session targeting:
- The avoidance of controlling stimuli and other cases that support inactivity and substitution of physical activity for sedentary behavior.
- Participants received a reminder card and pamphlets.
Week 22 social support Individual phone call focusing on previously agreed goals and encourage reaching goals.
Week 24 interpersonal influences Group mountaineering