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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (OR)a for no recreational walking, and prevalence rates for response categories of neighbourhood perceptions and individual cognitions by educational level.

From: Socioeconomic differences in lack of recreational walking among older adults: the role of neighbourhood and individual factors

     Educational level  
Independent factors OR 95% CI p 1
(low)
2 3 4
(high)
p
NEIGHBOURHOOD perceptions         
Physical neighbourhood factors         
Neighbourhood is unsafe         
   disagree 1.00   .636 95.5b 95.9 98.2 98.9 .004
   agree 0.87 (0.49–1.55)   4.5 4.1 1.8 1.1  
Neighbourhood is unattractive         
   disagree 1.00   .008 72.5 84.3 88.6 86.0 .000
   agree 1.41 (1.09–1.82)   27.5 15.7 11.4 14.0  
Insufficient places for physical activity         
   disagree 1.00   .256 64.3 75.2 77.5 88.7 .000
   agree 1.14 (0.91–1.44)   35.7 24.8 22.5 11.3  
Social neighbourhood factors         
Social cohesion         
   high 1.00   .000 38.1 36.3 41.3 40.9 .001
   medium 0.62 (0.50–0.78)   30.3 37.1 38.2 34.9  
   low 0.82 (0.64–1.05)   31.6 26.6 20.5 24.3  
Social network         
   large 1.00   .000 34.4 37.4 37.6 29.4 .034
   medium 1.56 (1.23–1.98)   33.2 32.9 40.9 37.0  
   small 1.59 (1.25–2.04)   32.4 29.7 21.5 33.6  
Feeling at home in neighbourhood         
   high 1.00   .120 32.4 35.3 36.4 42.3 .020
   moderate 0.80 (0.64–1.01)   33.2 38.0 36.6 31.1  
   low 0.99 (0.78–1.26)   34.4 26.7 27.0 26.6  
Social disorganisation         
   low 1.00   .540 45.3 48.4 50.6 54.0 .000
   medium 0.96 (0.75–1.22)   18.6 24.3 23.5 24.5  
   high 0.86 (0.67–1.12)   36.1 27.3 25.9 21.5  
INDIVIDUAL cognitions         
Attitude towards regular physical activity         
   positive 1.00   .000 25.8 32.8 36.0 32.8 .002
   neutral 1.34 (1.07–1.67)   61.9 54.9 58.5 58.4  
   negative 4.16 (2.96–5.84)   12.3 12.3 5.4 8.7  
Social influences for regular physical activity         
   positive 1.00   .000 54.9 50.1 49.6 53.2 .003
   neutral 1.62 (1.32–1.99)   30.3 40.3 43.9 38.3  
   negative 1.76 (1.26–2.45)   14.8 9.6 6.5 8.5  
Perceived behaviour control to be regularly active         
   (very) sure 1.00   .000 59.2 67.0 70.7 74.2 .001
   not sure/unsure 1.65 (1.32–2.07)   31.0 25.7 20.5 19.0  
   (very) unsure 2.10 (1.48–2.97)   9.8 7.3 8.8 6.8  
Intention to be regularly active         
   yes 1.00   .000 45.9 55.0 57.3 67.0 .000
   maybe 1.84 (1.49–2.27)   38.9 38.1 35.2 26.7  
   no 4.41 (3.09–6.29)   15.2 6.9 7.5 6.4  
  1. a Models were weighted, and adjusted for age, sex, and educational level.
  2. b This is the percentage of respondents in a certain response category per socioeconomic group; for example, 95.5% of those in the lowest group disagreed with the statement "My neighbourhood is unsafe".