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Table 1 Individual, household and community characteristics (Mean ± SD) of mother-offspring pairs from 1994 to 2005 in Cebu, Philippinesa

From: Offspring consume a more obesogenic diet than mothers in response to changing socioeconomic status and urbanization in Cebu, Philippines

Year 1994 1998 2002 2005
No. of households 1,884 1,781 1,615 1,311
Outcome – Dietary characteristics:     
Mothers     
   Energy adequacy, (Kcal/BEE)a 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0
   Percent calories from CHOa, (%) 69.0 68.2 67.8 68.1
   Percent calories from fat, (%) 15.8 17.1 16.0 15.7
Offspring – Females     
   Energy adequacy, (Kcal/BEE) 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4
   Percent calories from CHO, (%) 68.4 64.0 56.0 55.6
   Percent calories from fat, (%) 17.2 22.1 26.6 25.8
Offspring – Males     
   Energy adequacy, (Kcal/BEE) 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6
   Percent calories from CHO, (%) 68.4 64.3 60.5 60.0
   Percent calories from fat, (%) 16.9 21.8 22.2 21.6
Individual-level characteristics:     
Mothers     
   Age, (years) 38.7 ± 6.1 42.7 ± 6.1 45.9 ± 6.0 48.6 ± 5.9
   Education, (years) 7.5 ± 3.9 7.6 ± 3.9 7.6 ± 3.9 7.7 ± 3.9
Gender of Offspring (% male) 51.6 53.0 55.7 56.5
Offspring – No. of Females 912 837 720 571
   Age, (years) 11.5 ± 0.4 14.9 ± 0.4 18.7 ± 0.3 21.5 ± 0.3
   Education, (years) 3.7 ± 1.0 7.8 ± 1.5 10.8 ± 2.0 12.1 ± 3.1
Offspring – No. of Males 968 944 895 740
   Age, (years) 11.5 ± 0.4 16.1 ± 0.3 18.7 ± 0.3 21.5 ± 0.3
   Education, (years) 3.4 ± 1.2 7.8 ± 1.5 9.5 ± 2.9 10.7 ± 3.9
Household-level characteristics:     
Household income (pesos/wk) 501.0 ± 407.8 543.3 ± 407.4 578.1 ± 468.8 601.4 ± 555.0
Household assets, (score,1 to 11) 4.0 ± 2.2 4.8 ± 2.2 5.3 ± 2.0 5.5 ± 1.9
Community-level characteristics:     
Urbanicity (score, 1 to 70) 35.7 ± 13.3 39.0 ± 13.7 41.9 ± 13.8 41.0 ± 13.4
  1. aNotes: SD = Standard Deviation, Kcal = kilocalories, BEE = Basal Energy Expenditure, CHO = Carbohydrate