Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 18 Studies examining the relationship between physical activity and osteoporosis.

From: A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

Publication Country Study Design Quality Score Objective Population Methods Outcome Comments and Conclusions
Robitaille et al 2008 [150] To assess the relationship between the physician- diagnosised osteoporosis and family history and examine whether osteoporosis risk factors account for this relationship. • n = 8,073 PA assessment: Questionnaire. Level of PA was expressed in MET (hr/wk) Prevalence of reported osteoporosis in US women by PA level Prevalence of osteoporosis declines with increasing PA in a dose-response manner.
   • Sex: Women    
   • Age: ≥ 20 yrs    
USA   • Characteristics: American women    
   • Study: NHANES (1999-2004) G1 = 0 PA level (% prevalence)  
Cross-sectional    G2 = <30    • G1 = 11.0 (9.8-12.4)  
    G3 = ≥ 30    • G2 = 7.1 (6.0-8.4)  
D & B score = 10        • G3 = 3.9 (2.8-5.4)  
    Muscle strengthening activities were expressed in frequency/wk Times/week p < 0.001  
     PA level (age adjusted)  
        • G1 = 8.9 (7.7-10.1)  
    G1 = 0    • G2 = 8.4 (7.3-9.7)  
    G2 = <2    • G3 = 6.2 (4.4-8.5)  
    G3 = ≥ 2 p < 0.01  
    Criteria for diagnosis of osteoporosis: Self-reported physician diagnosed Muscle strengthening (%prevalence)  
        • G1 = 8.1 (7.2-9.1)  
    Chi-square    • G2 = 3.1 (1.7-5.5)  
        • G3 = 7.4 (5.8-9.4)  
     p < 0.001  
     Muscle strengthening (age adjusted)  
        • G1 = 7.8 (6.9-8.7)  
        • G2 = 6.7 (3.8-11.8)  
        • G3 = 9.5 (7.6-11.9)  
     p < 0.05  
Keramat et al 2008 [151] To assess risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women from selected BMD centers in Iran and India. • Iran n = 363; 178 case, 185 control Study period 2002 -- 2005 OR (95% CI) of osteoporosis in exercisers vs. non-exercisers. Iran (age adjusted) Exercise was shown as protective factor in both countries and it remained significant after adjustment for age weight and height in Iran.
   • India n = 354; 203 case, 151 control PA assessment: Questionnaire. PA was categorized as exercises, other exercises (e.g., swimming, aerobics, weight training) and walking   
Iran and India      
   • Sex: Women      • Exercises = 0.4 (0.2-0.7)  
Case control   • Age: Iran Case = 58.2 (7.1) yr; Iran Control = 55.7 (6.0) yr; India Case = 58.9 (8.1) yr; India Control = 56.4 (7.5) yr BMD assessment: DEXA    • Other exercises = 0.4 (0.2-0.6)  
   • Characteristics: Cases had BMD > 2.5 SD below average of young normal bone density in L1-L4 spine region and/or total femoral region. Controls had BMD < 1 SD below normal Multinominal logistic regression    • Regular Walking = 0.5 (0.3- 0.8)  
D & B score = 11      Walking and other exercises were shown as protective factors in Iranian subjects.
     Iran (age, weight, height adjusted)  
        • Exercises = 0.4 (0.2-0.7)  
        • Other exercises = 0.3 (0.2-0.6)  
        • Regular Walking = 0.4 (0.2- 0.8) I  
     ndia (age adjusted)  
        • Exercises = 0.4 (0.3-0.9)  
        • Other exercises = NS  
        • Regular Walking = NS  
     India (age, weight, height adjusted)  
        • Exercises = NS  
   • Ethnicity: Indian and Iranian      • Other exercises = NS  
        • Regular Walking = 0.4 (0.2- 0.8)  
  1. D & B score, Downs and Black quality score; YR, years; MET/wk, metabolic equivalent per week; G, groups; PA, physical activity; BMD, bone mineral density; SD, standard deviation; DEXA, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; NS, not significant.