Skip to main content

Table 4 Differences between environments rated by the expert panel and commuting participants at test and retest

From: The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

  Expert panel
(n = 22-24)
Commuting participants
(n = 43-44)
Difference
commuters - experts
Item Mean ± SD Test
mean ± SD
Retest
mean ± SD
t-test
p-value
Test-retest
mean ± SD*
Mean ± SEd** t-test
p-value
1. On the whole -0.92 ± 3.55 -1.65 ± 2.86 -1.77 ± 2.74 0.771 -1.71 ± 2.48 -0.79 ± 0.82 0.339
2. Hinders or stimulates -1.17 ± 3.02 -1.25 ± 2.76 -1.09 ± 2.36 0.671 -1.17 ± 2.25 0.00 ± 0.65 0.995
3. Exhaust fumes 2.54 ± 2.67 2.07 ± 3.02 2.45 ± 3.58 0.396 2.26 ± 2.96 -0.28 ± 0.73 0.701
4. Noise 2.04 ± 2.44 1.48 ± 3.39 1.39 ± 3.43 0.815 1.43 ± 3.16 -0.61 ± 0.77 0.428
5. Flow of motor vehicles 2.78 ± 2.81 2.30 ± 3.43 2.50 ± 3.95 0.623 2.40 ± 3.43 -0.38 ± 0.83 0.646
6. Speeds of motor vehicles -1.52 ± 2.39 -0.45 ± 1.78 0.02 ± 3.34 0.371 -0.22 ± 2.03 1.31 ± 0.56 0.022
7. Speeds of bicyclists -1.25 ± 3.07 -0.40 ± 2.00 -0.07 ± 2.13 0.212 -0.23 ± 1.89 1.02 ± 0.60 0.097
8. Congestion: all types of vehicles 4.00 ± 3.19 4.04 ± 3.63 3.89 ± 3.64 0.731 3.97 ± 3.30 -0.03 ± 0.82 0.967
9. Congestion: bicyclists 5.25 ± 3.07 4.30 ± 3.91 3.27 ± 3.64 0.017 3.78 ± 3.52 -1.47 ± 0.86 0.091
10. Conflicts 3.54 ± 2.47 4.21 ± 3.98 2.63 ± 2.95 0.006 3.42 ± 3.00 -0.12 ± 0.72 0.865
11. Bicycle paths† -0.38 ± 2.02 -0.86 ± 2.89 -0.58 ± 3.32 0.493 -0.72 ± 2.82 -0.35 ± 0.65 0.598
12. Traffic: unsafe or safe -3.04 ± 2.38 -3.18 ± 3.46 -2.59 ± 3.10 0.223 -2.89 ± 2.88 0.16 ± 0.70 0.823
13. Greenery -4.25 ± 3.18 -3.39 ± 4.00 -2.61 ± 3.69 0.103 -3.00 ± 3.52 1.25 ± 0.86 0.153
14. Ugly or beautiful 2.79 ± 3.80 1.04 ± 3.78 0.95 ± 3.29 0.808 1.00 ± 3.32 -1.79 ± 0.89 0.047
15. Course of the route 0.67 ± 3.89 2.43 ± 3.77 1.75 ± 3.42 0.112 2.09 ± 3.32 1.42 ± 0.90 0.116
16. Hilliness -1.71 ± 2.69 -1.61 ± 4.07 -1.14 ± 2.98 0.329 -1.38 ± 3.18 0.33 ± 0.77 0.665
17. Red lights 2.50 ± 3.28 4.00 ± 4.03 2.98 ± 3.53 0.041 3.49 ± 3.44 0.99 ± 0.86 0.256
18. Short or long‡ - -0.14 ± 3.17 0.20 ± 2.59 0.387 - - -
  1. *Test and retest scores combined to give a test-retest mean. For further explanation, see the text.
  2. **SEd stands for standard error of difference.
  3. †Minimal value = 0, and maximal value = 10.
  4. ‡Not assessed by the expert panel.