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Table 2 Summary of studies examining the relationship between ATS and HRF in youth

From: The relationship between active travel to school and health-related fitness in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Benefits Associated with ATS Not associated with ATS Summary codinga
  Reference no. Assoc. (-/+)b Reference no. n/N (%)c Assoc. (-/+/?)d
Weight status/body composition [19, 8]e,[20, 30, 43, 31, 23]e,[38, 39]f,[40, 42, 25] - [21, 26, 22, 35, 36, 27, 34, 24, 41, 37, 15, 28], [29] 12/25 (48%) ?
Cardiorespiratory fitness [15]g,[32]g,[33]g,[29] + [25] 4/5 (80%) +
Muscular fitness [15] +   1/1 (100%) ?
Flexibility [15]h +   1/1(100%) ?
  1. Note. ATS = active travel to school; A positive or negative association was noted if at least one component of ATS was associated with the HRF component
  2. aSummary code provides an overall summary of the findings for each relationship.
  3. bAssociation shows the direction of the individual association.
  4. cN = number of studies that examined and reported possible associations between ATS and HRF component, n = number of studies that support the relationship.
  5. dAssociation for overall findings for each relationship for high quality studies. If 60-100% of high quality studies (≥ 4) found a relationship between ATS and HRF component, the result was coded as having strong evidence for a positive association (++) or negative association (--). If < 4 studies available the relationship was coded as indeterminate (?).
  6. eRelationship for boys only.
  7. fRelationship for girls only.
  8. gRelationship between CRF and cycling.
  9. hCyclists had better flexibility than walkers and those who used PTS.