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Table 4 Association between neighbourhood walkability and any (> 0 mins/week) walking (transport, recreation and total) using different computations of land use mix

From: How important is the land use mix measure in understanding walking behaviour? Results from the RESIDE study

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
WI Quartile OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Do any transport walking (> 0 mins/week):           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 1.34 (1.01,1.78) 0.040 1.49 (1.13,1.98) < 0.01 1.37 (1.04,1.82) 0.028 1.15 (0.87,1.51) 0.333 1.42 (1.08,1.88) 0.014
Med-High 1.26 (0.95,1.67) 0.112 1.26 (0.94,1.67) 0.117 1.33 (1.00,1.76) 0.051 0.98 (0.74,1.29) 0.875 1.26 (0.95,1.67) 0.109
High 1.81 (1.37,2.39) < 0.01 1.96 (1.48,2.59) < 0.01 1.58 (1.20,2.09) < 0.01 1.28 (0.97,1.68) 0.078 1.53 (1.16,2.03) < 0.01
Trend (quartiles) 1.19 (1.09,1.30) < 0.01 1.20 (1.10,1.31) < 0.01 1.14 (1.05,1.25) < 0.01 1.06 (0.97,1.16) 0.183 1.12 (1.03,1.22) 0.011
Trend (z-score) 1.12 (1.07,1.18) < 0.01 1.13 (1.08,1.18) < 0.01 1.10 (1.05,1.16) < 0.01 1.09 (1.04,1.14) < 0.01 1.10 (1.05,1.15) < 0.01
Residential density (z-score)* 1.10 (0.99,1.24) 0.080 1.10 (0.98,1.23) 0.092 1.14 (1.02,1.27) 0.023 1.15 (1.03,1.28) 0.012 1.14 (1.02,1.27) 0.019
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.14 (1.03,1.27) 0.014 1.15 (1.03,1.28) 0.014 1.14 (1.03,1.27) 0.016 1.15 (1.03,1.28) 0.013 1.14 (1.02,1.27) 0.017
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.13 (1.02,1.25) 0.021 1.15 (1.03,1.27) 0.010 1.03 (0.93,1.14) 0.575 0.97 (0.88,1.07) 0.541 1.02 (0.92,1.13) 0.726
Do any recreational walking (> 0 mins/week):           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.92 (0.71,1.20) 0.543 0.99 (0.76,1.29) 0.935 1.04 (0.80,1.36) 0.771 0.84 (0.65,1.10) 0.203 0.88 (0.67,1.14) 0.336
Med-High 0.94 (0.72,1.23) 0.648 0.97 (0.74,1.26) 0.808 1.05 (0.81,1.37) 0.713 1.01 (0.78,1.32) 0.922 1.00 (0.77,1.30) 0.995
High 1.15 (0.88,1.50) 0.319 1.17 (0.89,1.52) 0.263 1.36 (1.04,1.78) 0.024 1.25 (0.96,1.64) 0.101 1.29 (0.99,1.69) 0.061
Trend (quartiles) 1.04 (0.96,1.14) 0.323 1.04 (0.96,1.14) 0.314 1.10 (1.01,1.19) 0.030 1.09 (1.00,1.18) 0.049 1.09 (1.01,1.19) 0.038
Trend (z-score) 1.02 (0.98,1.07) 0.294 1.02 (0.98,1.07) 0.343 1.03 (0.98,1.07) 0.231 1.04 (1.00,1.09) 0.062 1.03 (0.98,1.07) 0.216
Residential density (z-score)* 0.99 (0.89,1.11) 0.893 1.00 (0.89,1.11) 0.943 0.99 (0.89,1.10) 0.868 0.98 (0.88,1.09) 0.741 0.99 (0.89,1.10) 0.890
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.06 (0.95,1.17) 0.301 1.06 (0.95,1.17) 0.300 1.05 (0.95,1.17) 0.319 1.05 (0.95,1.16) 0.367 1.05 (0.95,1.17) 0.347
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.03 (0.93,1.13) 0.599 1.02 (0.92,1.12) 0.765 1.04 (0.94,1.15) 0.415 1.12 (1.01,1.23) 0.025 1.04 (0.95,1.15) 0.387
Do any walking at all (> 0 mins/week):           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.96 (0.73, 1.26) 0.765 1.04 (0.80,1.37) 0.759 1.08 (0.83,1.42) 0.571 0.91 (0.69,1.19) 0.491 1.07 (0.82,1.40) 0.618
Med-High 1.00 (0.76, 1.32) 0.980 1.05 (0.80,1.37) 0.738 1.10 (0.84,1.44) 0.506 0.93 (0.71,1.23) 0.625 1.03 (0.79,1.35) 0.832
High 1.28 (0.97, 1.69) 0.078 1.33 (1.01,1.75) 0.043 1.35 (1.03,1.78) 0.032 1.20 (0.91,1.59) 0.187 1.34 (1.02,1.76) 0.038
Trend (quartiles) 1.08 (0.99, 1.18) 0.080 1.09 (1.00,1.19) 0.056 1.10 (1.00,1.19) 0.040 1.06 (0.97,1.15) 0.197 1.09 (1.00,1.18) 0.063
Trend (z-score) 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) 0.010 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.011 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.017 1.07 (1.02,1.12) < 0.01 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.022
Residential density (z-score)* 1.03 (0.92,1.16) 0.567 1.04 (0.92,1.16) 0.550 1.05 (0.93,1.18) 0.424 1.05 (0.94,1.18) 0.404 1.05 (0.94,1.18) 0.368
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.06 (0.95,1.18) 0.278 1.06 (0.95,1.18) 0.273 1.06 (0.95,1.18) 0.307 1.06 (0.95,1.18) 0.328 1.05 (0.95,1.17) 0.338
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.10 (0.99,1.22) 0.069 1.10 (0.99,1.22) 0.083 1.07 (0.97,1.19) 0.183 1.10 (0.99,1.21) 0.067 1.06 (0.96,1.17) 0.265
  1. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; *Denotes multivariate association; a Model 1 = Residential+Retail+Office+Health, welfare & community; b Model 2 = Model 1+Entertainment, culture & recreation; c Model 3 = Model 2+Public Open Space, Sporting infrastructure & Primary and rural; d Model 4 = Model 3+Unclassified land; e Model 5 = Residential+Retail+Health, welfare & community+Entertainment, culture & recreation+Public open space, Sporting infrastructure & Primary and rural. All models adjusted for gender, age, education level, marital status and presence of children at home.