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Table 6 Association between neighbourhood walkability and ≥ 150 mins/week of walking (transport, recreation and total) using different computations of land mix use

From: How important is the land use mix measure in understanding walking behaviour? Results from the RESIDE study

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
WI Quartile OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Transport walking ≥ 150 min/week:           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.84 (0.42,1.70) 0.637 0.85 (0.42,1.72) 0.652 1.93 (0.96,3.85) 0.064 0.42 (0.19,0.94) 0.034 1.47 (0.75,2.88) 0.266
Med-High 0.73 (0.35,1.52) 0.402 0.74 (0.36,1.54) 0.420 1.06 (0.48,2.33) 0.883 1.26 (0.68,2.34) 0.453 1.08 (0.53,2.23) 0.827
High 1.58 (0.86,2.93) 0.144 1.60 (0.86,2.96) 0.134 1.90 (0.95,3.81) 0.070 1.03 (0.55,1.94) 0.933 1.41 (0.71,2.79) 0.325
Trend (quartiles) 1.17 (0.94,1.44) 0.152 1.17 (0.95,1.45) 0.143 1.14 (0.92,1.40) 0.232 1.11 (0.90,1.37) 0.343 1.07 (0.87,1.32) 0.527
Trend (z-score) 1.12 (1.02,1.22) 0.016 1.12 (1.03,1.23) 0.012 1.09 (1.00,1.20) 0.062 1.10 (1.00,1.21) 0.040 1.08 (0.98,1.19) 0.122
Residential density (z-score)* 1.12 (0.90,1.39) 0.313 1.11 (0.89,1.38) 0.352 1.16 (0.94,1.43) 0.163 1.14 (0.93,1.41) 0.215 1.18 (0.96,1.45) 0.126
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.26 (1.00,1.60) 0.052 1.26 (1.00,1.60) 0.053 1.28 (1.01,1.62) 0.039 1.29 (1.01,1.64) 0.040 1.30 (1.03,1.64) 0.027
Land use mix (z-score)* 0.99 (0.78,1.25) 0.909 1.01 (0.80,1.28) 0.922 0.85 (0.66,1.09) 0.198 0.89 (0.70,1.13) 0.341 0.78 (0.60,1.00) 0.047
Recreation walking ≥ 150 min/week:           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.83 (0.59,1.17) 0.290 0.84 (0.60,1.18) 0.311 1.09 (0.77,1.53) 0.632 0.96 (0.68,1.36) 0.817 0.83 (0.59,1.19) 0.313
Med-High 0.84 (0.60,1.19) 0.324 0.78 (0.55,1.11) 0.169 0.83 (0.58,1.19) 0.319 0.97 (0.68,1.37) 0.846 0.98 (0.69,1.38) 0.901
High 0.94 (0.67,1.33) 0.742 0.97 (0.69,1.36) 0.842 1.16 (0.82,1.63) 0.401 1.08 (0.77,1.53) 0.644 1.08 (0.77,1.51) 0.664
Trend (quartiles) 0.98 (0.88,1.10) 0.747 0.98 (0.88,1.10) 0.738 1.02 (0.91,1.14) 0.729 1.03 (0.92,1.14) 0.652 1.04 (0.93,1.16) 0.494
Trend (z-score) 1.01 (0.96,1.07) 0.665 1.01 (0.96,1.07) 0.669 1.01 (0.96,1.07) 0.616 1.02 (0.96,1.08) 0.526 1.02 (0.96,1.08) 0.503
Residential density (z-score)* 1.00 (0.86,1.15) 0.964 1.00 (0.86,1.15) 0.967 1.00 (0.86,1.15) 0.955 1.00 (0.86,1.15) 0.947 0.99 (0.86,1.14) 0.917
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.02 (0.89,1.17) 0.771 1.02 (0.89,1.17) 0.769 1.02 (0.89,1.17) 0.787 1.02 (0.89,1.17) 0.807 1.01 (0.88,1.16) 0.836
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.02 (0.90,1.16) 0.727 1.02 (0.90,1.16) 0.737 1.03 (0.91,1.17) 0.626 1.05 (0.93,1.19) 0.451 1.06 (0.93,1.20) 0.395
Total walking ≥ 150 min/week:           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.85 (0.62,1.15) 0.286 0.86 (0.63,1.16) 0.316 1.16 (0.85,1.57) 0.344 0.88 (0.65,1.20) 0.417 0.98 (0.72,1.33) 0.873
Med-High 0.84 (0.62,1.14) 0.268 0.79 (0.58,1.08) 0.136 0.93 (0.68,1.27) 0.628 1.06 (0.78,1.44) 0.715 1.01 (0.74,1.37) 0.958
High 1.03 (0.76,1.39) 0.852 1.11 (0.83,1.50) 0.483 1.27 (0.94,1.72) 0.118 1.15 (0.85,1.55) 0.365 1.19 (0.88,1.61) 0.262
Trend (quartiles) 1.01 (0.91,1.11) 0.881 1.03 (0.93,1.13) 0.609 1.05 (0.96,1.16) 0.292 1.06 (0.96,1.17) 0.219 1.06 (0.96,1.16) 0.254
Trend (z-score) 1.04 (0.99,1.09) 0.164 1.04 (0.99,1.09) 0.155 1.03 (0.98,1.09) 0.180 1.05 (0.99,1.10) 0.082 1.04 (0.99,1.09) 0.145
Residential density (z-score)* 1.03 (0.91,1.17) 0.605 1.03 (0.91,1.16) 0.618 1.04 (0.92,1.17) 0.570 1.03 (0.91,1.16) 0.660 1.03 (0.92,1.16) 0.594
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.06 (0.94,1.19) 0.337 1.06 (0.94,1.19) 0.336 1.06 (0.94,1.19) 0.339 1.06 (0.94,1.19) 0.372 1.06 (0.94,1.19) 0.357
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.01 (0.91,1.14) 0.801 1.02 (0.91,1.14) 0.747 1.01 (0.90,1.13) 0.900 1.06 (0.95,1.18) 0.328 1.02 (0.91,1.14) 0.711
  1. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; *Denotes multivariate association; a Model 1 = Residential+Retail+Office+Health, welfare & community; b Model 2 = Model 1+Entertainment, culture & recreation; c Model 3 = Model 2+Public Open Space, Sporting infrastructure & Primary and rural; d Model 4 = Model 3+Unclassified land; e Model 5 = Residential+Retail+Health, welfare & community+Entertainment, culture & recreation+Public open space, Sporting infrastructure & Primary and rural. All models adjusted for gender, age, education level, marital status and presence of children at home.