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Table 2 Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) for appetite regulation at age 3-6 years for directly breastfed children compared to children bottle-fed human milk and formula

From: Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

  High
Satiety Responsiveness
High
Food Responsiveness
High
Enjoyment of Food
  DIRECT BF†
OR (CI 95%)
BTL-HM
OR (CI 95%)
BTL-FORM
OR (CI 95%)
DIRECT BF†
OR (CI 95%)
BTL-HM
OR (CI 95%)
BTL-FORM
OR (CI 95%)
DIRECT BF†
OR (CI 95%)
BTL-HM
OR (CI 95%)
BTL-FORM
OR (CI 95%)
Unadjusted 1.00 0.49 (0.20, 1.18) 0.92 (0.30, 2.82) 1.00 0.78 (0.32, 1.88) 0.48 (0.17, 1.40) 1.00 1.63 (0.70, 3.82) 0.77 (0.27, 1.40)
Model 1‡ 1.00 0.37 (0.14, 0.97)* 1.24 (0.37, 4.14) 1.00 0.90 (0.35, 2.35) 0.42 (0.14, 1.25) 1.00 1.95 (0.79, 4.87) 0.61 (0.20, 2.19)
Model 2‡ 1.00 0.34 (0.13, 0.93)* 1.21 (0.36, 4.04) 1.00 1.05 (0.39, 2.85) 0.45 (0.15, 1.35) 1.00 2.09 (0.81, 5.37) 0.33 (0.20, 1.89)
Model 3‡ 1.00 0.33 (0.12, 0.93)* 1.18 (0.35, 3.99) 1.00 1.26 (0.45, 3.54) 0.48 (0.16, 1.48) 1.00 2.23 (0.85, 5.90) 0.64 (0.21, 1.95)
  1. †DIRECT BF was Reference group.
  2. ‡ Model 1 includes child age and child weight status
  3. Model 2 includes Model 1 + maternal race
  4. Model 3 includes Model 2 + maternal education level
  5. * p ≤ 0.05
  6. DIRECT BF = direct breastfeeding group. BTL-HM = Bottle-fed Human Milk group. BTL-FORM = Bottle-fed Formula group. CI 95% denotes the 95% confidence interval. Child Weight Status was based on the current growth percentile, based on CDC standard growth reference, as follows: not overweight/obese as less than the 85th percentile for age and gender, and overweight/obese as equal to or greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender. Maternal Race was coded as being White or not. Maternal Education was coded as having a College degree and Beyond or having less than a College degree.