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Table 2 Results from MANOVA and effect sizes by block group income

From: Does availability of physical activity and food outlets differ by race and income? Findings from an enumeration study in a health disparate region

Variable F Sig Mean SD Cohen’s d
Walkability Index 2.39 .106    
Low Income    1.4 2.6  
Medium Income    −1.0 2.9  
High Income    −1.4 3.9  
Low to Medium Income      0.87
Low to High Income      0.84
Medium to High Income      0.11
PA outlet (Count) 0.57 .572    
Low Income    1.7 1.8  
Medium Income    2.7 4.4  
High Income    1.3 2.4  
Low to Medium Income      0.19
Low to High Income      0.30
Medium to High Income      0.40
Food Outlet: Stores (Count) 2.34 .111    
Low Income    1.1 0.9  
Medium Income    1.8 2.2  
High Income    0.3 0.8  
Low to Medium Income      0.88
Low to High Income      0.41
Medium to High Income      0.88
Food Outlet: Restaurants (Count) 5.33 .009*    
Low Income    2.2 4.0  
Medium Income    6.2 13.5  
High Income    4.0 2.8  
Low to Medium Income      0.52
Low to High Income      0.39
Medium to High Income      0.23
  1. *While the MANOVA is significant for this variable, the post-hoc tests were not significant based on Levene’s test for equality of variance.