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Table 4 Adjusted* Odds Ratios^ with 95% Confidence Intervals for Normalized Measures of Crime with Physical Activity: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

From: Associations of adult physical activity with perceived safety and police-recorded crime: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Police-Recorded Crime Measures*** Transport Walking** Leisure Walking** Non-walking Leisure Activities**
Tertile 2 vs. 1 Tertile 3 vs. 1 Tertile 2 vs. 1 Tertile 3 vs. 1 Category 2 vs. 1 Category 3 vs. 1
Incivilities (drug, vandalism, prostitution)
Total
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.75 (1.12,2.72) 1.10 (0.69,1.76) 1.24 (0.80,1.90) 1.05 (0.70,1.59) 0.95 (0.58,1.57) 1.08 (0.66,1.75)
   2nd tertile 1.13 (0.73,1.76) 0.94 (0.58,1.53) 1.06 (0.70,1.61) 1.15 (0.76,1.74) 1.41 (0.85,2.34) 1.42 (0.85,2.40)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Outdoor
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 2.26 (1.50,3.42) 1.58 (1.01,2.49) 1.24 (0.80,1.93) 1.35 (0.88,2.06) 1.06 (0.63,1.77) 1.32 (0.85,2.03)
   2nd tertile 1.36 (0.90,2.06) 1.05 (0.69,1.58) 1.10 (0.69,1.74) 0.90 (0.61,1.34) 0.86 (0.52,1.41) 0.93 (0.60,1.43)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Criminal offenses (robbery, weapon, sexual assault)
Total
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.44 (0.91,2.28) 1.14 (0.70,1.87) 0.84 (0.57,1.23) 0.96 (0.63,1.45) 0.82 (0.51,1.31) 1.37 (0.87,2.16)
   2nd tertile 1.07 (0.68,1.70) 1.13 (0.77,1.65) 0.69 (0.44,1.07) 0.75 (0.47,1.20) 0.94 (0.60,1.48) 1.15 (0.75,1.77)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Outdoor
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.14 (0.70,1.84) 1.14 (0.70,1.84) 0.75 (0.50,1.11) 0.76 (0.50,1.16) 0.80 (0.53,1.21) 1.22 (0.77,1.92)
   2nd tertile 1.17 (0.76,1.81) 0.84 (0.54,1.32) 0.68 (0.43,1.09) 0.62 (0.39,0.96) 1.15 (0.73,1.82) 1.32 (0.86,2.01)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Homicide
Total
   none 0.90 (0.55,1.48) 0.82 (0.53,1.29) 0.88 (0.54,1.43) 0.91 (0.54,1.52) 0.82 (0.42,1.58) 1.02 (0.62,1.67)
   yes (< median of non-zero data) 0.95 (0.43,2.06) 0.48 (0.22,1.04) 0.80 (0.36,1.76) 0.88 (0.36,2.11) 0.50 (0.19,1.34) 0.59 (0.29,1.20)
   yes (> = median of non-zero data) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Outdoor
   none 0.97 (0.53,1.80) 1.12 (0.68,1.86) 1.08 (0.53,2.19) 0.99 (0.52,1.87) 0.72 (0.38,1.38) 1.39 (0.73,2.62)
   yes (< median of non-zero data) 0.94 (0.35,2.48) 0.63 (0.25,1.59) 1.04 (0.36,3.01) 1.05 (0.36,3.07) 0.80 (0.30,2.18) 0.95 (0.31,2.90)
   yes (> = median of non-zero data) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  1. ^ Adjusted for clustering using 2000 census block groups by applying generalized estimating equations.
  2. *All associations control for age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84), gender, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Chinese American), education (high school or less, college, graduate school), income (<35 k, 35 k- < 75 k, 75 k- < 100 k, > = 100 k), working status (yes or no), sidewalk presence in neighborhood (yes or no), length of residence in neighborhood (continuous), and distance to nearest public transportation (continuous).
  3. **Cutpoints of categorized physical activity outcomes in minutes/week:
  4. Transport walking: (1) <150, (2) 150- < 420, (3) > =420.
  5. Leisure walking: (1) <35, (2) 35- < 210, (3) > =210.
  6. Non-walking Leisure Activities: (1) 0, (2) <210, (3) > =210.
  7. ***Normalized crimes were summarized over two years, which include the year the interview was performed and the previous year.
  8. Cutpoints of categorized crime measures in tertiles:
  9. Criminal offenses: Total: (1) <6.2, (2) 6.2- < 15.2, (3) > =15.2; Outdoor: (1) <4.8, (2) 4.8- < 11.6, (3) > =11.6.
  10. Incivilities: Total: (1) <27.8, (2) 27.8- < 54.6, (3) > =54.6; Outdoor: (1) <12.9, (2) 12.9- < 22.7, (3) > =22.7.
  11. Homicides: Total: (1) 0, (2) >0- < 0.9, (3) > =0.9; Outdoor: (1) 0, (2) >0- < 0.9, (3) > =0.9.