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Table 6 Adjusted* Odds Ratios^ with 95% Confidence Intervals for Combined Perceived Safety and Police-Recorded Crime with Physical Activity: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

From: Associations of adult physical activity with perceived safety and police-recorded crime: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Perceived Safety / Police Recorded n % Transport Walking** Leisure Walking**
Measure of Crime Tertile 2 vs. 1 Tertile 3 vs. 1 Tertile 2 vs. 1 Tertile 3 vs. 1
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Incivilities (total)
   1 or 2 - very safe/lowest tertile 98 12.3 1.98 (0.97,4.02) 1.56 (0.81,3.03) 1.10 (0.49,2.47) 1.01 (0.50,2.03)
   Other 628 78.9 1.04 (0.62,1.75) 1.21 (0.74,1.97) 1.20 (0.63,2.26) 1.23 (0.70,2.16)
   4 or 5 -not safe/highest tertile 70 8.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Incivilities (outdoor)
   1 or 2 - very safe/lowest tertiles 128 16.1 2.42 (1.18,4.98) 2.19 (1.15,4.16) 1.04 (0.49,2.21) 1.41 (0.69,2.91)
   Other 601 75.5 1.18 (0.69,2.01) 1.33 (0.82,2.14) 1.04 (0.55,1.95) 1.17 (0.67,2.04)
   4 or 5 -not safe/highest tertiles 67 8.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Criminal offenses (total)
   1 or 2 - very safe/lowest tertile 128 16.1 1.95 (1.03,3.70) 1.61 (0.89,2.88) 0.77 (0.36,1.65) 0.91 (0.43,1.89)
   Other 598 75.1 1.11 (0.65,1.87) 1.42 (0.90,2.27) 0.85 (0.47,1.53) 0.79 (0.42,1.46)
   4 or 5 - not safe/highest tertile 70 8.8     
Criminal offenses (outdoor)
   1 or 2 - very safe/lowest tertiles 129 16.2 1.68 (0.82,3.46) 1.46 (0.80,2.65) 0.78 (0.37,1.66) 0.77 (0.36,1.62)
   Other 593 74.5 1.03 (0.63,1.67) 1.26 (0.80,1.98) 0.86 (0.48,1.54) 0.81 (0.45,1.45)
   4 or 5 - not safe/highest tertiles 74 9.3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Safety: Homcide (total)
   1 or 2 - very safe/lowest tertile 253 31.8 1.01 (0.45,2.27) 1.67 (0.85,3.26) 1.24 (0.47,3.25) 1.34 (0.65,2.79)
   Other 520 65.3 0.83 (0.36,1.90) 1.33 (0.68,2.60) 1.28 (0.49,3.34) 1.07 (0.47,2.43)
   4 or 5 - not safe/highest tertile 23 2.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  1. ^ Adjusted for clustering using 2000 census block groups by applying generalized estimating equations.
  2. *All associations control for age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84), gender, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Chinese American), education (high school or less, college, graduate school), income (<35 k, 35 k- < 75 k, 75 k- < 100 k, > = 100 k), working status (yes or no), sidewalk presence in neighborhood (yes or no), length of residence in neighborhood (continuous), and distance to nearest public transportation (continuous).
  3. **Cutpoints of categorized physical activity outcomes in minutes/week:
  4. Transport walking: (1) <150, (2) 150- < 420, (3) > =420.
  5. Leisure walking: (1) <35, (2) 35- < 210, (3) > =210.
  6. Note: associations with outdoor homicides could not be conducted due to small cell sizes.