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Table 2 Mixed effects models of the trend in enjoyment of PE over time by gender, perceived competence, parental education, participation in organized activity, and BMI

From: Gender, perceived competence and the enjoyment of physical education in children: a longitudinal examination

  Model 1 Estimate (SE) Model 2 Estimate (SE) Model 3 Estimate (SE)
Intercept 10.7 (0.05)*** 8.41 (0.15)*** 9.02 (0.2)***
Time (days) -1.6 × 10-4 (8.5 × 10-5) -2.5 × 10-4 (8.2 × 10-5)** -3.0 × 10-3 (3.5 × 10-4)***
Age (baseline) 0.03 (0.08) 0.03 (0.06) 0.04 (0.06)
Gender    
   Male 0.2 (0.07)** 0.01 (0.06) -0.05 (0.25)
   Female - - -
Male by Time 5.8 × 10-4 (1.2 × 10-4)*** 5.7 × 10-4 (1.1 × 10-4)*** 2.7 × 10-3 (5.4 × 10-4)***
BMI   -0.03 (0.01)*** -0.03 (0.01)***
Parental Education    
   High School or Less   -0.16 (0.09) -0.16 (0.09)
   College/Technical School   -0.001 (0.06) -5.0 × 10-5 (5.5 × 10-2)
   Undergraduate Degree   -0.23 (0.09)** -0.22 (0.09)**
Professional/Graduate Degree   -0.09 (0.11) -0.08 (0.1)
   Education missing   - -
Organized Activity Participation   1.5 × 10-2 (3.6 × 10-3)*** 1.3 × 10-2 (3.5 × 10-3)***
Perceived Athletic Competence (PAC)   0.15 (4.6 × 10-3)*** 0.12 (0.01)***
PAC by Time    1.5 × 10-4 (1.9 × 10-5)***
PAC by Male    4.9 × 10-3 (1.3 × 10-2)
PAC by Time by Male    1.2 × 10-4 (2.8 × 10-5)***
  1. ** p < .01; *** p < .001