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Table 2 Actual versus estimated calories, Philadelphia versus Baltimore

From: Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

  Actual Estimated Estimated minus actual Difference-in-Difference
Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Significance tests Unadj Adj (95% CI) P
Pre Post
Full sample
  Philadelphia 987 927 578 581 −409 −346 **   177 122 (−809, 1052) 0.35
  Baltimore 974 923 758 593 −216 −330      
Purchased >850 calories (median)
  Philadelphia 1480 1450 780 758 −700 −692 *   223 191(−2301,2682) 0.51
  Baltimore 1430 1390 1032 777 −398 −613      
Purchased ≤850 calories (median)
  Philadelphia 446 459 357 422 −89 −37    105 78 (20, 136) 0.04
  Baltimore 463 486 450 420 −13 −65      
Male 1
  Philadelphia 982 943 575 609 −407 −334    130 124 (−998, 1245) 0.39
  Baltimore 1006 968 692 597 −314 −370      
Female 1
  Philadelphia 987 925 602 562 −385 −363    −41 −87 (−386, 213) 0.17
  Baltimore 993 834 689 591 −305 −243      
Black 1
  Philadelphia 933 858 543 585 −389 −273    173 100 (−760, 959) 0.38
  Baltimore 1007 895 745 577 −262 −318      
White 1
  Philadelphia 1088 990 684 751 −405 −239    384 250 (−524, 1025) 0.15
  Baltimore 886 950 815 661 −71 −290      
High school or less 1
  Philadelphia 968 885 545 475 −423 −409    169 54 (−590, 698) 0.48
  Baltimore 954 934 698 523 −256 −411      
Some college or AA 1
  Philadelphia 1028 977 582 811 −447 −166    170 231 (77, 385) 0.03
  Baltimore 1065 914 758 718 −307 −196 *     
BA or above 1
  Philadelphia 1065 1141 650 696 −414 −445 *   149 231(−2138,2600) 0.43
  Baltimore 968 900 919 671 −49 −229      
Food only
  Philadelphia 801 691 521 528 −279 −163    180 205 (−514, 924) 0.17
  Baltimore 774 719 618 500 −156 −219      
Beverage only
  Philadelphia 203 308 204 231 1 −77    −13 −60 (−1450,1329) 0.68
  Baltimore 306 368 341 338 35 −31      
Purchased 1 item
  Philadelphia 320 316 221 286 −99 −30 **   167 181 (−864, 1226) 0.27
  Baltimore 319 339 364 286 45 −53      
Purchased >1 item
  Philadelphia 1139 1138 660 683 −480 −455 *   128 112 (−932, 1156) 0.40
  Baltimore 1202 1093 895 683 −307 −411      
Purchased combination meal
  Philadelphia 1441 1512 768 738 −674 −774    9 −15(−2050,2019) 0.94
  Baltimore 1482 1383 932 723 −550 −659      
Did not purchase combination meal
  Philadelphia 863 725 527 527 −337 −198 **   252 167 (−539, 872) 0.20
  Baltimore 801 764 698 548 −102 −216 *     
  1. 1May not sum to the full sample because of missing gender, race, and/or education for some subjects.
  2. Unadj: Unadjusted. Adj: Adjusted.
  3. **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05.