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Table 3 Longitudinal regression models of parent, child and neighborhood factors on body mass index (BMI), moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) and sedentary time (%SED)

From: Longitudinal effects of parental, child and neighborhood factors on moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

  BMI b, p-value %MVPA b, p-value %SED b, p-value
Time of assessment
FU1 v Baseline 0.89, p = 0.0001a 2.49, p = 0.0001d
FU2 v Baseline 1.63, p = 0.0001a 5.05, p = 0.0001d
Baseline explanatory variables
Child gender    
boy vs. girl 0.79, p = 0.11 5.45, p = 0.0001 -1.19, p = 0.08§
Respondent age    
Child 0.94, p = 0.002 -0.40, p = 0.03 2.48, p = 0.0001
Maternal
Paternal -0.05, p = 0.02 0.06, p = 0.33¥
Education level    
Maternal -0.10, p = 0.04
Paternal
Spanish-language acculturation    
Maternal 0.45, p = 0.04 -0.72, p = 0.14
Paternal -0.125, p = 0.17 1.61, p = 0.01
Household characteristic    
Income
Size -0.06, p = 0.07 -0.53, p = 0.005
Neighborhood characteristic    
Disorder -1.03, p = 0.10
Victimization
Time-varying explanatory variables
Child BMI    
BMItv n/a -0.13, p = .0002
BMIbase n/a
BMIΔ n/a
Pubertal status (PS)    
PStv n/e -0.83, p = 0.06
PSbase 4.42, p = 0.0001
PSΔ
Maternal BMI    
BMItv n/e n/e n/e
BMIbase 0.21, p = 0.0001b
BMIΔ 0.05, p = 0.09b -0.18, p = 0.004 0.51, p = 0.003
Paternal BMI    
BMItv 0.11, p = 0.03 n/e
BMIbase 0.15, p = 0.14e
BMIΔ -0.74, p = 0.07e
Interactions
Gender-by-child BMI  
BMItvamong boys   -0.22, p = 0.0002c  
BMItvamong girls   -0.05, p = 0.19c  
Gender-by paternal age  
Paternal age among boys    -0.14, p = 0.10f
Paternal age among girls    0.26, p = 0.001f
  1. Abbreviations:BMIbody mass index,FU1Follow-up 1-year,%MVPAmoderate-vigorous physical activity,%SEDsedentary time,FU2Follow-up 2-years.
  2. Statistical notation: interaction effects not tabled were removed via backward elimination; n/a: not included as an explanatory variable for the child BMI outcome; n/e: time-varying explanatory variable was never entered into the model because the corresponding between-person (base) and within-person (Δ) effects significantly differed; •: effect removed via backward elimination.
  3. aomnibus 2 df p-value = 0.0001;bp-value for difference between effect estimates = 0.0034.
  4. cchild gender-by-BMI interaction p-value = 0.02;domnibus 2 df p-value = 0.0001;ep-value for difference between effect estimates = 0.04;fchild gender-by-paternal age interaction p-value = 0.0005.
  5. effect of child gender at the average child BMI value;effect of time-varying child BMI averaged across boys and girls;§effect of child gender at the average paternal age;¥effect of paternal age averaged across boys and girls.