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Table 6 Studies and effect sizes for individual parental support behaviours (k = 64)

From: Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Study, country Sample (number, gender, mean age) Design Parental support measure Child physical activity measure Results Corrected effect size
Anderson et al. (2007) [119] USA N = 100 CS Child report Accelerometer (4 d) Children’s MPA & encouragement: r = −.06 .05
47 m, 53 f Encouragement .70* Children’s VPA & encouragement: r = .11
13.4 yrs .63 Mean r = .03
Anderson et al. (2009) [120] USA N = 391 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & encouragement: r = .39 .56
207 m, 184 f Encouragement PAQ-C Adolescents’ MVPA & parental encouragement: r = .25 .36
9.9 yrs .70* .70*
N = 948 Child self-report
370 m, 578 f MAQ-A
13.6 yrs .70*
Arredondo et al. (2006) [121] USA N = 812 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s PA & monitoring: β = .19, p < .001* .27
390 m, 422 f Monitoring .70* Children’s PA & praise: β = .13, p < .001* .19
.70* *Adjusted for parent’s age, marital status, employment, & education
6.0 yrs
  Reinforcement/praise
.70*
Beets et al. (2006) [122] USA N = 363 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & providing transportation: β = .28 .40
174 m, 189 f Encouragement Youth risk behavior surveillance survey Children’s MVPA & praise: β = .36 .51
12.3 yrs .70* .70*
Transportation
.70*
Co-activity
.70*
Watch.
70*
Praise
.70*
De Bourdeaudhuij et al. (2005) [123] Belguim N = 5563 (normal weight) CS Child report Child self-report Children’s PA & encouragement: r = .25 (normal weight); r = .26 (overweight) .35
14.8 yrs Encouragement Study developed questionnaire Mean r = .25
N = 515 (overweight & obese) .70* .75
14.6 yrs
Dowda et al. (2011) [40] USA N = 369 CS Parent report Accelerometer (2 wk) Children’s MVPA & PA equipment: β = .17 .22
175 m, 194 f PA equipment at home .80*
4.2 yrs .70* (92% respondents mothers) Direct observation (OSRAC-P)
Inter-observer .91
Fredricks & Eccles (2005) [42] USA N = 364 PRO (1 yr) Parent report Child self-report Children’s PA (sport) & encouragement: r = .33, p < .001 (baseline); r = .31, p < .001 (follow-up) .45
184 m, 180 f Encouragement & co-activity .70* Mean r = .32 .08
Ages 7.0-11.0 yrs at baseline    
α = .73 Children’s PA (sport) & co-activity: r = .05 (baseline); r = .07 (follow-up) .36
Equipment purchases Mean r = .06  
Children’s PA (sport) & PA equipment: r = .24, p < .001 (baseline); r = .25, p < .001
    .70*   Mean r = .25
Gubbels et al. (2011) [124] Netherlands N = 2026 PRO (2 yrs) Parent report Parent report Children’s PA & encouragement: β = .06, p < .05 .09
1037 m, 989 f Encouragement .70*
5.0 yrs at baseline α = .57
Heitzler et al. (2006) [76] USA N = 3114 CS Parent reported Child self-report Children’s organized PA & transportation: OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.33, p < .001 .12
Age range: 9.0-13.0 yrs Parental support – aggregated and individually reported (co-activity, watching child, & transportation) Test-retest .64 Children’s organized PA & watching: OR = 1.31, 95% 1.19-1.43, p < .001 .16
Test-retest .65 Children’s organized PA & co-activity: OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.13, p < .001 .01
Hendrie et al. (2011) [44] Australia N = 106 CS Parent report Child self-report Children’s organized PA & co-activity: r = .247, p < .05; r = .286, p < .01 when controlled for parent demographic factors .33
51 m, 55 f Parental support – aggregate measure (watch, transportation) CLASS
8.3 yrs α = .79 .70*
Co-activity
α = .79
(92% respondents mothers)
Hennessy et al. (2010) [45] USA N = 76 CS Parent report Accelerometer (5 d) Children’s PA & monitoring: β = −.13 -.17
26 m, 50 f Monitoring .70* Children’s PA & praise: β = −.05, p = .68 -.07
9.1 yrs Reinforcement
.83
Hohepa et al. (2007) [125] New Zealand N = 3471 CS Child report Child report Adolescents’ PA & encouragement: r = .38 (juniors); r = .41 (seniors) .56
1666 m, 1805 f Encouragement .70* Mean r = .39
14.8 yrs .70*
Huang et al. (2011) [126] China N = 303 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & PA equipment: r = .14, p < .05 .20
143 m, 160 f Availability of PA equipment CLASS-C
11.1 yrs .70* .70*
Klesges et al. (1984) [127] USA N = 14 CS Direct observation (FATS) Direct observation (FATS) Children’s PA (activity monitor) & encouragement: r = .23 .29
7 m, 7 f Encouragement .90
2.8 yrs .90 Activity monitor
.70*
Klesges et al. (1986) [128] USA N = 30 CS Direct observation (FATS) Direct observation (FATS) Children’s PA & encouragement: r = .32, p < .05 .36
15 m, 15 f Encouragement .90
2.5 yrs .90
Klesges et al. (1990) [129] USA N = 222 CS Direct observation (CATS) Direct observation (CATS) Children’s PA & encouragement: β = .32, p = .648 .35
122 m, 100 f Encouragement .91
4.4 yrs .91
King et al. (2008) [130] USA N = 535 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s VPA & encouragement: r = .15 .20
290 m, 245 f Encouragement .70* Children’s MPA & encouragement: r = .13
Age range: 14–18 yrs .70*
Mean r = .14
Lawman & Wilson (2014) [79] USA N = 181 CS Parent report Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescent’s MVPA & PA equipment: r = .09 .13
72 m, 109 f Availability of PA equipment .80* Adolescent’s MVPA & monitoring: r = .07 .08
13.3 yrs α = .61
Monitoring
α = .86
Loprinzi et al. (2013) [50] USA N = 176 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s MVPA & monitoring: β = .20, p < .05 .29
82 m, 94 f Monitoring child’s PA PAEC-Q
4.0 yrs .70 (85% respondents mothers) .70*
Loucaides et al. (2004) [131] Cyprus N = 256 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & encouragement: r = .12 (winter); r = .13 (summer) .10
Age range: 11.0-12.0 yrs Encouragement PDPAR Mean r = .08
Test-test .64 Test-retest .96 Children’s MVPA & PA equipment: r = .25, p < .001 (winter); r = .18, p < .01 (summer)
Parent report Mean r = .22 .27
Availability of PA equipment
.70*
Loucaides & Jago (2006) [132] Cyprus N = 104 CS Parent report Pedometer (5 d) Children’s PA & equipment: r = .10 .14
54 m, 50 f PA equipment .70* Children’s PA & transportation: r = .17 .24
Age range: 10.0-12.0 yrs .70* Children’s PA & watching: r = .18 .22
Transportation
.70*
Accompany child to PA
.99
Määtä et al. (2014) [133] Finland N = 883 CS Child report Child self-report Child PA & encouragement: r = .19, p < .001 .25
Age range: 10–11 yrs Encouragement .70* Child PA & Co-activity: r = .16, p < .001 .24
α = .84
Co-activity
α = .63
McKenzie et al. (1991) [134] USA N = 42 PRO Direct observation (BEACHES) Direct observation (BEACHES) Children’s PA & encouragement: r = .43, p < .01 .51
17 m, 25 f (8 wks) Prompts to be active .85
Age range: 4.0-8.0 yrs .85
McKenzie et al. (2008) [135] USA N = 139 CS Direct observation (BEACHES) Direct observation (BEACHES) Children’s MVPA & encouragement: r = .53, p < .01 .62
69 m, 70 f Prompts to be active .85
6.5 yrs .85 (97% respondents mothers)
Millstein et al. (2011) [136] USA N = 104 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s MVPA & PA equipment at home: r = .14, p < .15 .18
8.3 yrs Availability of PA equipment ICC = .76 Children’s MVPA & providing recreation centre membership: r = .04 .05
N = 137 ICC = .80 Child self-report Adolescents’ MVPA & PA equipment at home: r = .28, p < .01 .42
14.6 yrs Provision of recreation centre membership ICC = .64 Adolescent’s MVPA & providing recreation centre membership: r = .24, p < .01 .37
ICC = .76
Child report
Availability of PA equipment
ICC = .69
Provision of recreation centre membership
ICC = .66
Moore et al. (2008) [137] USA N =116 CS Child report Child self-report Adolescents’ MVPA & financial support (lessons): OR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.18-6.60, p < .05 .50
46 m, 70 f Financial support .70* Adolescents’ MVPA & financial support (sports): OR = 5.61, 95% CI 2.30-13.70, p < .01
Age range: 9.0-17.0 yrs .70* Mean r = .35
Moore et al. (2014) [138] USA N = 1005 CS Child report Accelerometer (4 d) Children’s MVPA & watching: OR .99, 95% CI .87-1.14); r = −.004 -.01
11.3 yrs Watch, praise, transportation, co-activity .70* Children’s MVPA & praise: OR 1.01, 95% CI .88-1.12; r = .004 .01
α = .76-.90 Children’s MVPA & transportation: OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.45, p < .05; r = .14 .19
Children’s MVPA & co-activity: OR .99, 95% CI .87-1.12; r = −.004 -.01
Mota (1998) [53] Portugal N = 45 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s PA & co-activity: r = .35, p < .05 .44
18 m, 27 f .88 .72
10.1 yrs
Nelson et al. (2005) [139] USA N = 1681 PRO (8 yrs) Co-activity 7DPAR Children’s MVPA & co-activity: OR = 5.84, 95% CI 5.02-6.80 .87
14.9 yrs at baseline .70* .70*
Østbyte et al. (2013) [54] USA N = 208 CS Parent report Accelerometer (7 d) Children’s MVPA & PA equipment at home: r = .01 .01
116 m, 92 f PA equipment .80*
2-5 yrs α = .65 (all mothers)
Pate et al. (1997) [140] USA N = 361 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & PA equipment: r = .10 .13
176 m, 185 f PA equipment at home PDPAR
10.7 yrs ICC = .86 .70*
Patnode et al. (2010) [55] USA N = 294 CS Parent reported the provision of PA equipment Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescents’ MVPA & PA equipment: r = .21, p < .001 .27
149 m, 145 f .70* .80*
15.4 yrs
Pfeiffer et al. (2009) [57] USA N = 331 CS Providing PA equipment Accelerometer (8–10 d) Children’s’ MVPA & PA equipment: r = .10, p < .10 .13
169 m, 162 f .70* (94% respondents mothers)
4.3 yrs .80*
Prochaska et al. (2002) [81] USA N = 138 CS Child report Activity monitor (5 d) Children’s PA (monitor) & encouragement: r = .07 .09
48 m, 90 f Parental support – aggregated & individual measures: Encouragement, coactivity, transportation, watch, praise .70* Children’s PA (monitor) & coactivity: r = .08 .10
Children’s PA (monitor) & transportation: r = .02 .03
12.1 yrs ICC = .88 ICC = .79 Children’s PA (monitor) & watching: r = .16 .20
α = .77 Children’s PA (monitor) & praise: r = .12 .30, p < .01 .15
Sabiston & Crocker (2008) [141] Canada N = 857 CS Child report GLTEQ Adolescents’ MVPA & encouragement: r = .27, p < .05 .37
419 m, 438 f Encouragement .77 .70*
16.3 yrs
Schary et al. (2012) [84] USA N = 195 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s PA & encouragement: r = .28, p < .001 .38
90 m, 105 f Parental support – aggregated & individual measures (encouragement, transportation, co-activity, watch, inform) PAEC-Q Children’s PA & watching: r = .22 .30
4.0 yrs α = .76 (86% respondents mothers) .70* Children’s PA & co-activity: r = .26, p < .001 .36
Children’s PA & transportation: r = .22, p < .001 .30
Children’s PA & providing information: r = .16, p < .05 .22
Vella et al. (2014) [65] Australia N = 4042 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s PA & co-activity: OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.57 p < .05; r = .13 .19
2069 m, 1973 f Co-activity Organized sports participation
.70* (96% respondents mothers) .70*
8.3 yrs
Verloigne et al. (2014) [85] Australia N = 134 CS Parent report Accelerometer (4 d) Adolescent MVPA & co-activity: r = .01 .01
66 m, 68 f Co-activity .70* Adolescent MVPA & praise: r = .01 .01
14.1 yrs Praise
.70* (84% respondents mothers)
Zhao & Settles (2014) [69] USA N = 1514 CS Parent self-report Parent report Children’s MPA & encouragement: β = .30, p < .05 .24
763 m, 751 f Encouragement .70* Children’s VPA & encouragement: β = .14 .33
11.8 yrs Co-activity Mean β = .17
.70* Children’s MPA & co-activity: β = .21, p < .01
Children’s VPA & co-activity: β = .25, p < .01
Mean β = .23
  1. Note. *reliability not reported; 7DPAR = 7-Day Physical Activity Recall; BEACHES = Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health Evaluation System; CS = cross-sectional; d = days; f = females; FATS = Fargo Activity Timesampling Survey; GLTEQ = Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; m = males; MPA = moderate physical activity; MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity; PA = physical activity; PAEC-Q = Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire for Children; PAQ-C = Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children; PRO = prospective; CATS = Children’s Activity Timesampling Survey; VPA = vigorous physical activity.