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Table 5 Characteristics of analyzed systematic reviews among youth

From: Determinants of dietary behavior among youth: an umbrella review

Author and date Search range applied Number of eligible studies included in the review/total number of studies included in the review Designs of studies Total sample size of eligible studies included in the review/Total sample size of all studies included in the review Ages Continent
Williams et al., 2014 [31] Up to 2013 13/30 Cross-sectional n = 12, longitudinal n = 1 Total n = 570,403, range 610 to 529,367/Total n = 1,550,415 (26 studies, NR: 4 studies), range 319 to 926,018 11 to 17y North-America n = 6, Europe n = 5, Australasia n = 1, Asia n = 1
Gardner et al., 2011 [17] No date limits were set. 4 studies (2 samples)/22 studies (21 samples) Cross-sectional n = 4 Total n = 695, range 312 to 383/Total n = 6,121, range 93 to 876 High school students Only Europe
Pearson & Biddle, 2011 [19] NR 31 studies (240 samples (total), 33 samples (children), 207 samples (adolescents))/53 studies (111 samples) Majority cross-sectional NR/Children: mean n = 1,184, range 66 to 6,235, Adolescents: mean n = 8,356, range 60 to 14,407 <12, 12 to 18y Children: majority North-America n = 13, Adolescents: half North-America n = 13
Adriaanse et al., 2011 [15] Up to 2009 1 study/21 research articles describing 23 empirical studies Healthy eating: cross-sectional n = 1, prospective n = 3, interventions n = 11; Unhealthy eating: longitudinal n = 1, interventions n = 8 NR/NR 11 to 16y NR
McClain et al., 2009 [24] From 1990 to 2009 50 studies/77 studies Overall results: cross-sectional n = 64, prospective n = 11, interventions n = 2 NR/<50 n = 4, 51–99 n = 1, 100–499 n = 39, 500–999 n = 15, 1000–2999 n = 14, 3000–4999 n = 3, ≥5000 n = 3 <13, 13 to 18y Overall results: North-America n = 48, Europe n = 32, Australasia n = 3, Africa n = 3, Asia n = 2, other n = 3
Van der Horst et al., 2007 [29] From 1980 to 2004 36 studies (44 samples)/58 studies (77 samples) Cross-sectional 95%, longitudinal 3%, case control 2% NR/<100 n = 8, 100–199 n = 6, 200–299 n = 1, 300–499 n = 5, 500–999 n = 2, 1000–2999 n = 9; 3000–4999 n = 4, ≥5000 n = 2 <13, 13 to 18y North-America 45 samples, Europe 26 samples, Asia 4 samples, Oceania 2 samples
Pearson et al., 2009 [25] Up to 2008 24 studies (33 samples)/ 24 studies (33 samples) Majority cross-sectional n = 23 Children: mean n = 1,534, range 136 to 4,314. Adolescents: mean n = 2,533, range 357 to 18,177 6 to 18y Majority Europe n = 12 (papers)
De Craemer et al., 2012 [21] From 1990 to 2010 6 studies/43 studies Cross-sectional n = 35, longitudinal n = 6, cross-sectional and longitudinal n = 1, intervention n = 1 NR/<100 n = 3, 100–999 n = 28, >1000 n = 12. Study sample sizes ranged from 46 to 5,652 4 to 6y North-America n = 21, Europe n = 9, Australasia n = 12, Asia n = 1
Pearson et al., 2009 [26] Up to 2007 Total papers: n = 60. Children: 25 studies (33 samples). Adolescents: 38 studies (55 samples)/Total papers: n = 60. Children: 25 studies (33 samples). Adolescents: 38 studies (55 samples) Majority cross-sectional n = 24. Children: cross-sectional n = 31, longitudinal n = 2; Adolescent: cross-sectional n = 55 , longitudinal n = 0 Mean n = 1,131, range 536 to 8,263. Children (6-11y): < 100 n = 8, 100–199 n = 2, 200–299 n = 1, 300–499 n = 1, 500–999 n = 6, 1000–2999 n = 10, 3000–4999 n = 3, unknown n = 2; Adolescent (12-18y): < 100 n = 2, 100–199 n = 3, 200–299 n = 3, 300–499 n = 11, 500–999 n = 4, 1000–2999 n = 12, 3000–4999 n = 8, >5000 n = 10 6 to 18y Children: 6-11y Adolescents: 12-18y Children: North-America n = 15, Europe n = 15, Australasia n = 1, South-America n = 1, Asia n = 2; Adolescent: North- America n = 23, Europe n = 16, Australasia n = 9, South-America n = 2, Asia n = 5
Verloigne et al., 2012 [30] From 1990 to 2010 17 studies/76 studies Cross-sectional n = 16, longitudinal n = 1 100-199 n = 1, 300–499 n = 1, 500–999 n = 5, 1000–2999 n = 5, 3000–4999 n = 2, ≥5000 n = 3/< 100 n = 3, 100–199 n = 9, 200–299 n = 6, 300–499 n = 10, 500–999 n = 17, 1000–2999 n = 20, 3000–4999 n = 5, ≥5000 n = 6 10 to 12y North-America n = 9, Europe n = 4, Australasia n = 4
Ford et al., 2012 [22] NR 9 studies /12 studies Cross-sectional n = 9 Total n = 13,280, range 240 to 4,983/Total n = 13,386, range 106 to 4,983 2 to 6y NR
Caspi et al., 2012 [16] Up to 2011 5 studies /38 studies Majority cross-sectional, intervention n = 3 NR/NR Children5 to 6y, 10 to 12y, youth, boy scouts North-America n = 4, Australasia n = 1
Moore & Cunningham, 2012 [18] NR 2 studies /14 studies Cross-sectional n = 2 Total n = 5,144, range 824 to 4,320/Total n = 94,230, range 51 to 64,277 Preteens and 14 to 17y NR
Lawman & Wilson, 2012 [23] From 1995 to 2010 11 studies /38 studies Cross-sectional n = 8, longitudinal n = 3. Total n = 21,865, range 228 to 4,746/Total n = 51,396, range 52 to 7,907 9 to 21y North-America n = 32
Sleddens et al., 2011 [28] Up to 2010 10 studies /36 studies Cross-sectional: n = 9, longitudinal: n = 1 Total n = 14,567, range 74 to 4,555/Total n = 35,146, range 48 to 4,983 NR North-America n = 5, Europe n = 5
Berge, 2009 [20] From 2000 onwards 48 studies /81 studies Cross-sectional n = 39, longitudinal n = 8, intervention n = 11 Total n = 190,270, range 23 to 99,426/Total n = 276,557, range 23 to 99,426 0 to 18y NR
Rasmussen et al., 2006 [27] Up to 2005 98 studies /98 studies Cross-sectional n = 90, longitudinal n = 8 <500 n = 24, 500–1000 n = 20, >1000 n = 53, NR: n = 1/<500 n = 24, 500–1000 n = 20, >1000 n = 53, NR: n = 1 NR North-America n = 50, Europe n = 31, Australasia n = 16, South-America n = 1
  1. Note: Designs of studies: cross-sectional, longitudinal observational, case control, and intervention studies (experimental, behavioral laboratory, filed studies in which interventions were studied); NR: not reported; we were mainly interested to provide a more thorough description on the eligible studies of the included reviews (designs of studies, ages, continent).