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Table 1 Change in physical activity from T1: Primary school to T2: Secondary school

From: Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study

  Total No change T1 to T2 Increase T1 to T2 Decrease  
Categorical variable N N % N % N % p
Average daily MVPA (accelerometer) by recommendation (1: < 60 mins; 2: ≥ 60 mins) 127 102 80% 8 6% 17 13%  
Frequency being very active in PE class (1: No PE, to 5: Always) 242 126 52% 79 33% 37 15% *
Do most of the time at recess (1: Sit down, to 5: Run/play hard) 240 65 27% 42 18% 133 55% *
Do most of the time at lunch (1: Sit down, to 5: Run/play hard) 236 52 22% 42 18% 142 60% *
School encourages organised sport participation (0: Not at all, to 3: A lot) 242 109 45% 77 32% 56 23%  
School encourages physical activity at lunchtime (0: Not at all, to 3: A lot) 240 101 42% 56 23% 83 35%  
Teachers as physically active role models (1: Very poor, to 5: Very good) 242 101 42% 81 33% 60 25%  
   T1: Primary school T2: Secondary school T1 to T2 Difference
Continuous variable N Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI p #
Average daily (mins) MVPA (accelerometer) 127 51 (18) 49, 55 48 (17) 45, 51 −4 (13) −6, −1 *
Average daily (mins) light PA (accelerometer) 127 219 (39) 212, 225 196 (40) 189, 203 −23 (33) −28, −17 *
Average daily (mins) after-school being very active (self-report) 237 64 (56) 57, 71 75 (67) 66, 83 10 (66) 2, 19 *
Average daily (mins) weekend being very active (self-report) 242 84 (82) 74, 95 83 (85) 72, 94 −1 (106) −14, 13  
Walk to/from school (0–10 times/week) 243 2.9 (3.8) 2.4, 3.4 3.0 (3.8) 2.5, 3.4 0.1 (4.1) −0.4, 0.6  
Cycle/scoot to/from school (0–10 times/week) 243 1.2 (2.5) 0.9, 1.5 0.5 (1.6) 0.3, 0.7 −0.7 (2.6) −1.0, −0.4 *
  1. CI: confidence interval; MV: moderate to vigorous; PA: physical activity; PE: physical education; SD: standard deviation; * statistical significance at P < 0.05 level.
  2. p†, test value for change between T1 & T2 total using exact McNemar or Bowker paired test of proportions.
  3. p #, test value for difference between T1 & T2 total using paired t-test of means.