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Table 1 Objective measures of the community design, movement network, lot layout and public parkland requirements from the Liveable Neighbourhoods policya

From: Are we developing walkable suburbs through urban planning policy? Identifying the mix of design requirements to optimise walking outcomes from the ‘Liveable Neighbourhoods’ planning policy in Perth, Western Australia

COMMUNITY DESIGN
Access to Neighbourhood Centres
▪ Distance to the nearest neighbourhood/town centre1
▪ Centre accessible within 400 m (Yes/No)2
▪ Centre accessible within 800 m (Yes/No)2
▪ Centre accessible within 1600 m (Yes/No)2
▪ % of dwellings within 400 m of a centre3
▪ % of dwellings within 800 m of a centre3
▪ % of dwellings within 1600 m of a centre3
Configuration of Neighbourhood centre accessible within 1600 m
▪ Main street or big-box layout
Diversity of Destinations within Neighbourhood Centres
▪ Number of convenience goods stores: Supermarkets; deli’s; speciality food stores(i.e., butchers, greengrocers, fishmongers); liquor stores and bottle shops; newsagents and confectionary retailers; service station shops
▪ Number of retail goods stores: Fashion and apparel stores, footwear and accessories shops; jewellery stores; books, games, music, DVD/video stores; cards, souvenirs and gift stores; personal electronic and telecommunications; variety and discount stores
▪ Number of general services: Hair and beauty; banks and finance; personal health (e.g., pharmacies); video/DVD rental; laundry and tailoring
▪ Number of medical and health care services: Medical centres; other medical and health services (e.g., dentist, physiotherapist);
▪ Number of places of worship: Churches, mosques, temples and synagogues
Number of community services and facilities: Community centres; day care centres/crèches; libraries
▪ Number of eating and drinking out establishments: Restaurants, bars, fast food outlets, hotels, taverns, pubs, bars, nightclubs
▪ Number of entertainment and amusement places: Cinemas; theatres; convert halls; museums, art galleries; gaming and gambling venues; sporting (spectator) venues
▪ Destination diversity score - number of different destination types present within the centre
▪ Minimum uses present within the centre (small retail or convenience store + post box + bus stop) (Yes/No)
Access to Public Transport
▪ Distance to the nearest bus stop1
▪ Bus stop accessible within 400 m (Yes/No)2
▪ % of dwellings ≤400 m of a bus stop3
▪ Number of bus routes through the development
▪ Number of bus services to/from the development
▪ Bus stop accessible within 250 m walkable catchment of the centre (Yes/No) 2
▪ Number of bus services to the centre
▪ Distance to the nearest train station1
▪ % of dwellings ≤800 m of a train station3
▪ % of dwellings ≤1600 m of a train station3
Access to Primary Schools
▪ Distance to the nearest primary school1
▪ % of dwellings ≤400 m of a primary school3
▪ % of dwellings ≤800 m of a primary school3
▪ % of dwellings ≤1600 m of a primary school3
MOVEMENT NETWORK
Connectivity of the Street Networks
▪ Connected node ratio (number of 3 + 4 way intersections ÷ number of all intersections including culs-de-sac)
▪ Mean block perimeter
Median block perimeter
▪ Block density = number of blocks ÷ constructed land area of development
▪ Walkable block ratio = number of blocks ≤620 m perimeter ÷ total number of blocks
External Connectivity
▪ Number of pedestrian-friendly access points along the development perimeter ÷ perimeter of development boundary (km)
Culs-de-sac Provision and Design
▪ Cul-de-sac length ratio (number of culs-de-sac ≤120 m in length ÷ total number of culs-de-sac)
▪ Cul-de-sac link ratio (number of culs-de-sac with a pedestrian cut through ÷ total number of culs-de-sac)
▪ Cul-de-sac lot ratio (number of culs-de-sac serving ≤20 residential lots ÷ total number of culs-de-sac)
▪ Percentage of residential lots on culs-de-sac (≤ / > 15 %) = number of residential lots served by a culs-de-sac ÷ total number of residential lots)
▪ Culs-de-sac street % (length of all road network segments terminating in a cul-de-sac ÷ total length of all road centrelines)
Total footpath provision
▪ Footpath length per unit area (ha) = length of all footpaths ÷ constructed land area of housing development
▪ Footpath to road ratio = length of all footpaths within the development ÷ length of all roads within the development
Footpaths on both sides of the street?
▪ % of road length with sidewalks (i.e., footpath segments that ran alongside the road)
▪ Sidewalk to road ratio = length of all footpath segments alongside/adjacent to roads ÷ length of all roads
Footpaths within neighbourhood centre 400 m service areas
▪ % of road length with sidewalks (i.e., footpath segments that ran alongside the road)
▪ Sidewalk to road ratio = length of all footpaths alongside roads ÷ length of all roads
Footpaths within primary school 400 m service areas
▪ % of road length with sidewalks (i.e., footpath segments that ran alongside the road)
▪ Sidewalk to road ratio = length of all footpaths alongside roads ÷ length of all roads
Cycling networks
▪ Cyclable roads ratio (based upon the level of stress experienced by the rider as a result of the traffic volumes and speed) = length of low + moderate stress roads (cycling friendly roads) ÷ length of all roads
▪ Cycle path length per unit area (ha) = length of all designated cycle and shared paths ÷ constructed land area of housing development
▪ Cycle path to road ratio = length of all footpaths ÷ length of all roads within the development
Streetscapes – Trees along footpaths
▪ Tree density along footpaths = number of trees along footpaths (within a 5 m buffer) ÷ length (km) of footpaths within the development
▪ Tree canopy cover = are of footpath shaded by tree canopy cover ÷ total footpath area within the development
LOT LAYOUT
Residential lot size
▪ Mean residential lot size
▪ Median residential lot size
▪ Number of different lot sizes present (categories: ≤350 m2; >350 - ≤550 m2; >550 - ≤750 m2; >750 - ≤950 m2; >950 m2)
▪ Residential land areas occupied by different lot sizes
▪ % of lots ≤350 m2 (i.e., “small” lots for medium density housing)
Lots near neighbourhood centres (within 400 m service areas)
▪ Mean residential lot size
▪ Median residential lot size
▪ Number of different lot sizes (categories) present
▪ Residential land area occupied small lots (≤350 m2)
Housing diversity development-wide
▪ Number of dwellings by type (n = 9) as a % of the total number of dwellings
▪ Residential land area occupied by different (n = 9) dwelling types
Dwelling types near neighbourhood centres (within 400 m service areas)
▪ Number of dwellings by type (n = 9) as a % of the total number of dwellings
▪ Residential land area occupied by different (n = 9) dwelling types
Nine dwelling type categories: 1) Single detached houses; 2) Semi-detached houses; 3) Duplex unit; 4) Triplex unit; 5) Town house; 6) Terrace house; 7) Group house; 8) Villa house; and 9) Flat or apartment. Housing types 3–8 (inclusive) represent medium density housing models. The total number of different dwelling types present within each development was then identified (i.e. 1–9).
PUBLIC PARKLAND
Amount and type of parks
▪ Area (ha) of all parks
▪ Area (ha) of all publicly accessible school grounds
▪ % provision of parks:
o Percentage park provision = area of all parks ÷ gross constructed land area of housing development (< / ≥ 10 %)
o Percentage park and school grounds provision = area of all parks + publicly accessible school grounds ÷ gross constructed land area of housing development (< / ≥ 10 %)
▪ Area of local parks types as a % of the total parkland area
▪ Area of neighborhood parks types as a % of the total parkland area
▪ Area of district parks types as a % of the total parkland area
Access to parks
▪ Distance to the nearest park (of any size)1
▪ Distance to the nearest local park1
▪ Distance to the nearest neighborhood park1
▪ Distance to the nearest district park1
▪ Distance to the nearest regional park (>4 ha)1
▪ % dwellings ≤400 m of any park3
▪ % dwellings ≤200 m of a local park3
▪ % dwellings ≤400 m of a small neighborhood park3
▪ % dwellings ≤400 m of a medium neighborhood park3
▪ % dwellings ≤400 m of a large neighborhood park3
▪ % dwellings ≤600 m of a district park3
% dwellings ≤2.5 km of a regional-sized park (>4 ha)3
▪ Park perimeter frontage ratio = % of the park perimeter bordered by lots facing the park
▪ Park perimeter roads ratio = % of the park perimeter bordered by adjacent roads
  1. a This is an abridged version of a Table previously published by the authors [20]
  2. 1Distance computed along the road network from all residential dwelling points (n = 31,102) to the nearest centre, bus stop, train station, primary school and parks. For each development the mean distance to each of these destinations was computed
  3. 2Deemed accessible if ≥10 % of the dwellings within a development had access to a centre within the specified distance
  4. 3Number of residential dwellings within a housing development that were within the specified distance (along the road network) as a proportion of the total number of residential dwellings within that development