Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of the samples by survey

From: Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption: a seven countries comparison

  SESAWa New Zealand Health Survey PHS Edmontonb GLOBEc HEPd GGHBHAWe NHS-LMAf
(N = 1535) (N = 12147) (N = 3189) (N = 634) (N = 919) (N = 1747) (N = 7665)
  N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range N (%) or Mean (SD) & Range
Response variables        
Fruit intake        
≥2 serves/day ǂ (all studies except NHS-LMA ǂǂ ) 927 (60.4 %) 6634 (54.6 %) 1318 (41.3 %) 358 (56.5 %) 184 (21.2 %) 931 (53.3 %) 6888 (89.9 %)
Vegetable intake        
≥3 serves/day (all studies except NHS-LMA †† ) 522 (34.0 %) 7996 (65.8 %) 862 (27.0 %) 138 (21.8 %) 186 (22.4 %) 440 (25.2 %) 6022 (78.6 %)
Key predictor variable        
Neighbourhood SES        
By individual        
Low 468 (30.5 %) 7146 (58.8 %) 1093 (34.3 %) 283 (44.6 %) 298 (31.2 %) 871 (49.9 %) 2202 (28.7 %)
Medium 572 (37.3 %) 3353 (27.6 %) 1040 (32.6 %) - 324 (33.8 %) 611 (35.0 %) 2837 (37.0 %)
High 495 (32.3 %) 1648 (13.6 %) 1056 (33.1 %) 351 (55.4 %) 297 (34.9 %) 265 (15.2 %) 2626 (34.3 %)
By neighbourhood        
Low 15 (33.3 %) 623 (53.0 %) 75 (31.3 %) 7 (50.0 %) 23 (33.3 %) 65 (54.6 %) 47 (32.9 %)
Medium 15 (33.3 %) 355 (30.2 %) 65 (27.0 %) - 19 (27.5 %) 35 (29.4 %) 48 (33.6 %)
High 15 (33.3 %) 197 (16.8 %) 101 (41.9 %) 7 (50.0 %) 27 (39.1 %) 19 (16.0 %) 48 (33.6 %)
Socio-demographic variables        
Age (years) 41.7 (12.6) 46.4 (17.4) 43.6 (19.1) 52.2 (13.7) 46.3 (24.3) 52.2 (19.6) 48.5 (18.0)
  18–66 18–97 18–93 25–75 25–96 18–99 18–96
Missing 54 (3.5 %) 0 (0.0 %) 28 (0.9 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 18 (1.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)
Gender        
Male - 4704 (38.7 %) 1582 (49.6 %) 287 (45.3 %) 287 (47.7 %) 679 (38.9 %) 3565 (46.5 %)
Missing   0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 2 (0.1 %) 0 (0.0 %)
BMI (kg/m2) 24.7 (5.5) 27.9 (6.3) 25.5 (4.7) 25.8 (4.2) 30.8 (6.1) 25.1 (4.4) 25.6 (4.2)
  12.0–58.0 13.5–63.7 14.5–63.2 16.7–56.5 15.8–61.8 13.0–52.5 18.5–58.7
Missing 102 (6.6 %) 1187 (9.8 %) 115 (3.6 %) 5 (0.8 %) 0 (0.0 %) 44 (2.5 %) 0 (0.0 %)
BMI category        
<20 kg/m 2 175 (11.4 %) 668 (5.5 %) 261 (8.2 %) 24 (3.8 %) 31 (3.8 %) 144 (8.2 %) 399 (5.2 %)
20 - <25 kg/m 2 680 (44.3 %) 3293 (27.1 %) 1354 (42.5 %) 258 (40.7 %) 163 (17.3 %) 820 (46.9 %) 3392 (44.3 %)
25 - <30 kg/m 2 335 (21.8 %) 3634 (29.9 %) 1023 (32.1 %) 262 (41.3 %) 271 (31.1 %) 537 (30.7 %) 2821 (36.8 %)
≥30 kg/m 2 243 (15.8 %) 3365 (27.7 %) 436 (13.7 %) 85 (13.4 %) 454 (47.9 %) 202 (11.6 %) 1053 (13.7 %)
Missing 102 (6.6 %) 1187 (9.8 %) 115 (3.6 %) 5 (0.8 %) 0 (0.0 %) 44 (2.5 %) 0 (0.0 %)
Education level        
Low 350 (22.8 %) 3476 (28.6 %) 438 (13.7 %) 300 (47.3 %) 328 (37.0 %) 1078 (61.7 %) 5564 (72.6 %)
Medium 602 (39.2 %) 5421 (44.6 %) 1922 (60.3 %) 156 (24.6 %) 512 (54.7 %) 310 (17.7 %) 1034 (13.5 %)
High 548 (35.7 %) 3244 (26.7 %) 819 (25.7 %) 178 (28.1 %) 79 (8.3 %) 340 (19.5 %) 1062 (13.9 %)
Missing 35 (2.3 %) 6 (0.1 %) 10 (0.3 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 19 (1.1 %) 5 (0.1 %)
  1. *Sample sizes omitting those with missing fruit and vegetable consumption and neighbourhood SES
  2. ǂGLOBE: ≥250 g/day; ǂǂ Portugal: any fruit yesterday- yes. † GLOBE: ≥200 g/day; †† Portugal: any vegetables yesterday- yes
  3. aSESAW = SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women study. bPHS Edmonton = Edmonton Population Health Survey. cGLOBE = Health and Living Conditions of the Population of Eindhoven study. dHEP = Healthy Environments Partnership study. eGGHBHAW = Greater Glasgow Health Board Health and Wellbeing survey.fNHS-LMA = National Health Survey for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area