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Table 3 Independenta and isotemporal substitutionb effects of sleeping, screen time, sitting, walking and non-walking moderate to vigorous physical activity on all-cause mortality risk. Participants who were considered healthy at baseline, defined as those who were never diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer, (Imputed datac, n = 143,680; 2690 deaths)

From: All-cause mortality effects of replacing sedentary time with physical activity and sleeping using an isotemporal substitution model: a prospective study of 201,129 mid-aged and older adults

  With 1 hr of:        
1. Isotemporal Substitution Model- Replace 1 hr of: Sleeping (<=7 hrs) Sleeping (>7 hrs) Screen-time Sitting Standing Walking MVPA Total activity
 A. Sleeping (<=7 hrs) - - 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 1.05 (0.98–1.11) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.95 (0.86–1.04) 0.99 (0.94–1.05)
 B. Sleeping (>7 hrs) -   0.98 (0.94–1.01) 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.94 (0.91–0.98) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.89 (0.84–0.95) 1.04 (1.00–1.07)
 C. Screen-time 0.89 (0.83–0.95) 1.06 (1.02–1.1) - 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.92 (0.87–0.96) 1.01 (1.00–1.03)
 D. Sitting 0.88 (0.82–0.94) 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.99 (0.96–1.01) - 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 0.90 (0.86–0.95) 1.03 (1.01–1.04)
 E. Standing 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 1.08 (1.04–1.12) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.04 (1.02–1.06) - 0.93 (0.86–1.02) 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.99 (0.97–1.00)
 F. Walking 0.98 (0.88–1.08) 1.18 (1.11–1.26) 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 1.11 (1.02–1.21) 1.07 (0.98–1.16) - 1.01 (0.91–1.11) 0.92 (0.85–1.00)
 G. MVPA 0.97 (0.90–1.05) 1.17 (1.11–1.23) 1.09 (1.04–1.14) 1.11 (1.06–1.16) 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 0.99 (0.90–1.10) - 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
2. Partition modela 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 1.06 (1.03–1.10) 1.02 (1.01–1.04) 1.03 (1.02–1.05) 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.89 (0.82–0.97) 0.91 (0.87–0.95) -
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age, educational level, marital status, urban or rural residence, BMI, smoking status, self-rated health, receiving help with daily tasks for a long-term illness or disability, prevalent disease at baseline (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer ), psychological distress, and  mutually adjusted for all activity classes
  2. bAdjusted for sex, age, educational level, marital status, urban or rural residence, BMI, smoking status, self-rated health, receiving help with daily tasks for a long-term illness or disability, psychological distress, mutually adjusted for all activity classes, and total time in all activity classes
  3. cMultiple imputation to replace missing time of the activity classes (based on age, sex, and non-missing other activity classes variables)