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Table 2 Associations between change in active commuting and changes in self-reported physical activity between T1 and T4

From: Changes in active commuting and changes in physical activity in adults: a cohort study

  RRR (95 % CI)
Exposure: Change in active commuting (min/week; no change, increase, decrease) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Outcome: Change in self-reported physical activity (min/week; tertiles)     
Total physical activity     
Total physical activity mid tertile (~no change) Ref - - -
Total physical activity top tertile (~increase)     
 Active commuting     
  Increase 1.8 (1.0, 3.2)* 1.7 (0.9, 3.1) 1.7 (0.9, 3.2) 1.8 (1.0, 3.4)****
  Decrease 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 1.4 (0.8, 2.6)
Total physical activity bottom tertile (~decrease)     
 Active commuting     
  Increase 2.2 (1.2, 4.1)* 2.1 (1.1, 4.0)* 2.1 (1.1, 4.1)* 1.8 (0.9, 3.7)
  Decrease 2.8 (1.6, 5.0)*** 2.8 (1.6, 5.1)*** 2.6 (1.4, 4.8)** 2.1 (1.1, 4.1)*
Total physical activity mid tertile (~no change) Ref - - -
Total physical activity top tertile (~increase)     
 Cycle commuting     
  Increase 2.6 (1.4, 4.7)** 2.4 (1.3, 4.4)** 2.5 (1.3, 4.9)** 2.5 (1.2, 5.0)*
  Decrease 1.1 (0.6, 1.8) 1.0 (0.6, 1.7) 1.1 (0.6, 1.9) 1.0 (0.6, 1.9)
Total physical activity bottom tertile (~decrease)     
 Cycle commuting     
  Increase 4.1 (2.2, 7.7)*** 3.8 (2.0, 7.2)*** 3.9 (2.0, 7.7)*** 3.0 (1.4, 6.3)**
  Decrease 2.4 (1.4, 4.0)** 2.3 (1.3, 3.8)** 2.1 (1.2, 3.8)* 1.5 (0.8, 2.9)
Total physical activity mid tertile (~no change) Ref - - -
Total physical activity top tertile (~increase)     
 Walking commuting     
  Increase 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 1.0 (0.5, 1.9)
  Decrease 1.3 (0.7, 2.5) 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.3 (0.7, 2.5) 1.4 (0.7, 2.7)
Total physical activity bottom tertile (~decrease)     
 Walking commuting     
  Increase 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 0.9 (0.4, 1.6) 0.9 (0.5, 1.9)
  Decrease 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 1.4 (0.8, 2.6) 1.5 (0.8, 2.8) 1.8 (0.9, 3.6)
Recreational physical activity     
Recreational physical activity mid tertile (~no change) Ref - - -
Recreational physical activity top tertile (~increase)     
 Active commuting     
  Increase 1.0 (0.5, 1.7) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) 1.0 (0.5, 1.9)
  Decrease 1.0 (0.6, 1.8) 1.0 (0.6, 1.8) 1.0 (0.6, 1.8) 1.0 (0.6, 1.8)
Recreational physical activity bottom tertile (~decrease)     
 Active commuting     
  Increase 1.6 (0.9, 3.0) 1.6 (0.9, 3.0) 1.7 (0.9, 3.3) 1.6 (0.8, 3.0)
  Decrease 1.3 (0.7, 2.3) 1.3 (0.7, 2.3) 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.0 (0.5, 1.9)
Recreational physical activity mid tertile (~no change) Ref - - -
Recreational physical activity top tertile (~increase)     
 Cycle commuting     
  Increase 1.1 (0.6, 2.1) 1.1 (0.6, 2.0) 1.1 (0.6, 2.2) 1.0 (0.5, 2.0)
  Decrease 0.9 (0.6, 1.5) 0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 0.8 (0.4, 1.4)
Recreational physical activity bottom tertile (~decrease)     
 Cycle commuting     
  Increase 2.1 (1.2, 3.7)* 2.0 (1.1, 3.6)* 2.0 (1.1, 3.8)* 1.5 (0.8, 3.0)
  Decrease 1.1 (0.7, 1.8) 1.1 (0.6, 1.8) 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 0.6 (0.3, 1.2)
Recreational physical activity mid tertile (~no change) Ref - - -
Recreational physical activity top tertile (~increase)     
 Walking commuting     
  Increase 0.8 (0.4, 1.4) 0.7 (0.4, 1.4) 0.8 (0.4, 1.4) 0.8 (0.4, 1.5)
  Decrease 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 1.0 (0.6, 1.9)
Recreational physical activity bottom tertile (~decrease)     
 Walking commuting     
  Increase 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 1.1 (0.6, 2.1)
  Decrease 1.3 (0.7, 2.3) 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.5 (0.8, 2.9)
  1. Model 1 is unadjusted
  2. Model 2 is adjusted for age and sex
  3. Model 3 is adjusted for variables in model 2 plus car ownership, access to a bicycle and self-reported distance between home and work
  4. Model 4 is adjusted for variables in model 3 plus baseline body mass index and baseline self-reported total physical activity
  5. CI confidence interval, RRR relative risk ratio
  6. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p = 0.059