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Table 4 Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of all-cause mortality by quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables for sensitivity analyses conducted on 149,787 participants with at least two years of follow-up

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large Australian cohort study

  Quartilesa  
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for trend
HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI  
Fruit and vegetable intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.81 0.76, 0.88 0.74 0.68, 0.80 0.80 0.74, 0.86 <0.0001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.90 0.84, 0.97 0.83 0.76, 0.90 0.80 0.74, 0.87 <0.0001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 1.00 0.93, 1.08 0.96 0.88, 1.04 0.93 0.86, 0.93 0.07
Fruit intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.90 0.81, 0.99 0.79 0.71, 0.87 0.79 0.71, 0.88 <0.001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.74 0.67, 0.82 0.66 0.59, 0.73 0.62 0.56, 0.69 <0.001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.88 0.80, 0.98 0.84 0.76, 0.94 0.83 0.74, 0.93 0.003
Vegetable intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.82 0.75, 0.89 0.73 0.68, 0.79 0.84 0.78, 0.91 <0.0001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.91 0.83, 0.99 0.84 0.78, 0.90 0.87 0.80, 0.94 <0.0001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.98 0.90, 1.07 0.94 0.87, 1.02 0.98 0.90, 1.06 0.309
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, Q quartile
  2. aThe quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables (servings/day) were as follows: Fruit and vegetables combined: Q1: <4.0; Q2: 4 to ≤ 5.0; Q3: 5.0 to ≤7.0; Q4: >7.0. Fruit: Q1: <1.0; Q2: 1.0 to <2.0; Q3: 2.0 to <2.3; Q4: ≥2.3. Vegetables: Q1: ≤2.0; Q2: 2.0 to ≤3.0; Q3: 3.0 to ≤5.0, Q4: >5.0
  3. bModel 2 was adjusted for age (continuous) and sex
  4. cModel 3 was adjusted for age (categorical), sex, education level, marital status, location of residence, socio-economic status, smoking status, physical activity categories, multi-vitamin use, processed meat consumption, diabetes and body mass index categories. The model for fruit was adjusted for vegetable intake and vice versa