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Table 5 Longitudinal association of changes in the school environment with changes in activity intensity during lunchtime (multivariable models)

From: School polices, programmes and facilities, and objectively measured sedentary time, LPA and MVPA: associations in secondary school and over the transition from primary to secondary school

Exposure SED change (n = 293) LPA change (n = 271) MVPA change (n = 267)
  β (95 % CI) β (95 % CI) β (95 % CI)
School environment N/A   N/A   (−0.25, 0.24)
Length of break 0.10 (−0.09, 0.28) −0.036 (−0.15, 0.08) N/A  
Hours of PE    
   no change (reference) N/A   N/A    
   decrease      −1.46 (−4.42, 1.49)
   increase      0.80 (−2.01, 3.60)
Physical activity policy    
   no change (reference)       
   no/yes −2.26 (−7.51, 3.00) 1.36 (−1.97, 4.70) 0.33 (−2.63, 3.28)
   yes/no 1.89 (−3.66, 7.43) −0.28 (−3.54, 3.00) −1.06 (−4.02, 1.91)
Lunchtime extracurricular physical activity provision    
   no change (reference)       
   no/yes −5.32 (−9.03, −1.61)** 2.40 (−0.07, 4.88) 3.16 (1.09, 5.23)**
   yes/no −7.00 (−15.41, 1.42) 4.63 (−0.52, 9.77) 2.71 (−1.60, 7.02)
Break time rule: screen-use    
   no/no (reference) N/A     N/A  
   no/yes    −1.27 (−5.52, 2.98)   
   yes/no    # #   
   yes/yes    −1.56 (−6.77, 3.66)   
Compulsory outdoor break rule    
   no change (reference)       
   no/yes - - - - - -
   yes/no 4.77 (−0.32, 9.86) −2.54 (−5.44, 0.36) −1.63 (−4.54, 1.29)
  1. LPA, light physical activity; MVPA, moderate to vigorous physical activity; PE, physical education; PA, physical activity; # = coefficient not estimated due to small cell size (n = 1); N/A, not analysed in multiple model
  2. * = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.01